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“Avatar” makes its world premiere in London

“Avatar” makes its world premiere in London

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On December 10 2009, “Avatar,” a 3-D science-fiction epic helmed by “Titanic” director James Cameron, makes its world debut in London. Starring Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana and Sigourney Weaver, the box-office mega-hit was praised for its state-of-the-art technology and earned nine Academy Award nominations, including best picture and best director.

Set in the year 2154, “Avatar” tells the story of disabled ex-Marine Jake Sully, who is recruited to help conquer and colonize Pandora, a faraway moon that is home to a mineral deposit coveted by people on Earth, whose energy resources are almost depleted. Pandora is inhabited by the Na’vi, a group of nature-loving, blue-skinned, half-alien/half-human creatures intent on protecting their own eco-system. (Cameron hired a linguist to create a unique language for the Na’vi.) Using an avatar to explore Pandora because the air there is toxic to humans, Jake falls in love with a Na’vi princess and goes native, eventually working to save the Na’vi from the human colonists.

Cameron wrote the script for “Avatar” in 1994; however, at that point the technology didn’t exist to produce the movie he wanted. In the meantime, he penned and directed “Titanic,” the 1997 blockbuster that garnered 11 Oscars and became the first film to gross more than $1 billion internationally. Prior to “Titanic,” Cameron helmed such hit films as “The Terminator” (1984), “Aliens” (1986) and “The Abyss” (1989), and became known for his imaginative use of special effects. In 2009, he told The New Yorker: “[‘Avatar’] integrates my life’s achievements…It’s the most complicated stuff anyone’s ever done.” Among the technologies used to make “Avatar” was performance capture, which turns an actor’s movements into a computer-generated image.

At the 82nd Academy Awards, held in March 2010, “Avatar” won Oscars for best visual effects, cinematography and art direction.

ABBAWORLD to premiere at Earls Court on 27th January

Fully approved and supported by ABBA, ABBAWORLD will make its stunning, sequin spangled, world debut in London at Earls Court on 27 January 2010. The hugely interactive experience will take visitors on a mind-blowing journey through ABBAWORLD’S 25 rooms, bursting with exclusive music, footage, images and never-before-displayed memorabilia from the personal collections of the world’s most cherished pop icons Agnetha, Benny, Björn and Frida.

An engaging introductory movie by critically acclaimed film director, Jonas Åkerlund, will start the experience and a free audio guide will move visitors through the magical space at their own pace.

The phenomenon of ABBA will be brought to life with interactive highlights including ‘Perform with ABBA’ which will allow fans to get up on stage with their idols, as part of a stunning 3D holographic illusion. ‘Tretow MIX Challenge’ – a chance to mix things up and re-create the ABBA sound, the ‘ABBA Quiz’ which will test fans knowledge. There is also the opportunity to Sing-A-Long and dance with ABBA, plus a chance for fans to see themselves as part of an ABBA video.

Better still, as part of the ticket, all interaction will be recorded so people can choose to access it later online at http://www.abbaworld.com/, allowing their experience to live on and on, just like the music. On entry to ABBAWORLD, guests will have their photograph taken, this will appear during a number of the interactive features fans will see themselves as part of ABBA album covers, posters and other iconic pictures.

London is the obvious choice for the world premiere of ABBAWORLD. The UK has a special place in the history of ABBA and it was here that global ABBA fever started with the glorious win of ‘Waterloo’ at the Eurovision Song Contest in Brighton in 1974. ABBA topped the charts in the UK more times than anywhere else in the world and through the smash hit musical Mamma Mia and its ten-year success in London together with the Mamma Mia movie being the highest grossing movie of all time at the UK box office, a new audience has taken ABBA to their hearts.

The Swedish super group created a legendary sound that sold close to 400 million records and made the whole world take to the dance floor. ABBA once again create history through ABBAWORLD the interactive and audiovisual experience of the world’s most loved pop icons. This major world event is a close collaboration with all four members of ABBA, making ABBAWORLD the definitive experience of this groundbreaking group. ABBAWORLD will bring fans closer to the music, the magic and the memories than ever before.

Frida said “On behalf of Agnetha, Björn, Benny and I, we are delighted to be part of ABBAWORLD and to have the opportunity to share our amazing experiences with our fans. The interactive elements mean this is the first time we can actually take them on the journey with us. London has a special place in all our hearts and we are looking forward to the world premiere of ABBAWORLD in January”

The Da Vinci Code to make stage premiere in 2021

The Da Vinci Code, Dan Brown’s blockbuster novel that captivated the world, is to become an epic stage thriller. It will make its World Premiere on a UK Tour in 2021, opening at the Churchill Theatre, Bromley on Saturday 3 April 2021, and touring throughout the year.

The curator of the Louvre has been brutally murdered, and alongside his body are a series of baffling codes. Follow the pulse-racing journey as Professor Robert Langdon and fellow cryptologist Sophie Neveu attempt to solve the riddles, leading to the works of Leonardo Da Vinci and beyond, deep into the vault of history. In a breathless race through the streets of Europe, Langdon and Neveu must decipher the labyrinthine code before a shocking historical secret is lost forever.

Based on the best-selling novel of this century, with over 100 million copies sold, unlock the secrets of The Da Vinci Code in the world premiere stage adaptation of the international phenomenon and uncover the truth in the greatest thriller of the past 2,000 years.

Dan Brown said: “I am thrilled that The Da Vinci Code is being adapted for the stage, and excited to see the unique potential of live theatre enhance this story. The team making the production has been faithful to the book, but will also bring something new for the audience, in what is certain to be a gripping, fast-paced stage thriller and a thoroughly entertaining show.

The Da Vinci Code is adapted for the stage by Rachel Wagstaff (Flowers For Mrs Harris, Birdsong) and Duncan Abel (The Girl on the Train), and will be directed by Luke Sheppard, who most recently directed the acclaimed new West End musical, & Juliet.

Luke Sheppard said: “Cracking The Da Vinci Code open for the stage reveals an epic thriller steeped in theatrical potential, rich in suspense and surprising at every turn. Rachel Wagstaff and Duncan Abel’s brilliant adaptation leaps off the page and demands us to push the limits of our imagination, creating a production that champions dynamic theatrical storytelling and places the audience up close in the heat of this gripping mystery.

The Da Vinci Code is produced by Simon Friend (The Girl On The Train, Life Of Pi).

‘An exhilarating, breathless thriller-chase. Blockbuster perfection’ The New York Times

The Da Vinci Code – 2021 Tour Dates
3 – 10 April
Churchill Theatre, Bromley
Box Office: 020 3285 6000

12 – 17 April
Hull New Theatre
Box Office: 01482 300 306

19 – 24 April
Oxford Playhouse
Box Office: 01865 305305

26 April – 1 May
Yvonne Arnaud Theatre, Guildford
Box Office: 01483 440 000

3 – 8 May
Bath Theatre Royal
Box Office: 01225 448844

10 – 15 May
Everyman Theatre, Cheltenham
Box Office: 01242 572573

17 – 22 May
Theatre Royal, Newcastle
Box Office: 08448 11 21 21

24 – 29 May
Richmond Theatre
Box Office: 03330 096 690
Richmond Theatre

31 May – 5 June
Mayflower Theatre, Southampton
Box Office: 023 8071 1811

7 – 12 June
Coventry Belgrade Theatre
Box Office: 024 7655 3055

14 – 19 June
Grand Theatre, Leeds
Box Office: 0844 848 2700

21 – 26 June
Theatre Royal, Nottingham
Box Office: 0115 989 5555

28 June – 3 July
New Theatre, Cardiff
Box Office: 029 2087 8889

5 – 10 July
Norwich Theatre Royal
Box Office: 01603 630 000

12 – 17 July
Lyceum Theatre, Sheffield
Box Office: 0114 249 6000

19 – 24 July
Milton Keynes Theatre
Box Office: 0844 871 7652
Book Tickets for Milton Keynes Theatre

26 – 31 July
Grand Theatre, Wolverhampton
Box Office: 01902 429212

30 Aug – 4 Sept
Theatre Royal, Plymouth
Box Office: 01752 267 222

6 – 11 Sept
Shrewsbury Severn Theatre
Box Office: 01743 281281

13 -18 Sept
His Majesty’s Theatre, Aberdeen
Box Office: 01224 641122

20 -25 Sept
King’s Theatre, Glasgow
Box Office: 0844 871 7648
Book Tickets for King’s Theatre Glasgow

27 Sept – 2 Oct
King’s Theatre, Edinburgh
Box Office: 0131 529 6000

4 -9 Oct
Curve Theatre, Leicester
Box Office: 0116 242 3595

11 -16 Oct
Brighton Theatre Royal
Box Office: 0333 009 6690
Book Tickets for Theatre Royal Brighton

18 – 23 Oct
Alexandra Theatre, Birmingham
Box office: 0844 871 3011
Book Tickets for Alexandra Theatre

25 – 30 Oct
New Victoria Theatre, Woking
Box Office: 0844 871 7645
Book Tickets for New Victoria Theatre

1 – 6 Nov
Orchard Theatre, Dartford
Box Office: 01322 220000

8 – 13 Nov
Royal & Derngate, Northampton
Box Office: 01604 624811

15 – 20 Nov
The Lowry, Salford
Box Office: 0343 208 6000

22 – 27 Nov
Malvern Theatre
Box Office: 01684 892277

Further Tour dates to be announced

James Cameron

E veryone thinks James Cameron is going down this time, as in Down, Down … Deep Down. Cameron included. So he has been laying off bets on himself: if the wondrous special effects prove less than wonderful, he says, then he wants Avatar, his new film, to be noted for its spiritual qualities. So the budget is estimated at $230m and the demented film world smiles in the glare of such numbers and contemplates Cameron's fall. (By the way, a film about Jim's demise would make its money back in southern California alone.)

His ruin has always been there for the begging. When he roared out on Oscar night, 1998, "I'm king of the world," as he clutched the Titanic Oscars, he was alluding to the way that in every film, he created a new world. It wasn't just the infernal battleground of an abandoned space station in Aliens the great underwater infinity of The Abyss or even the Los Angeles-straddling apocalypse in the Terminator films. Even Titanic – the most realistic film Cameron had ever touched – was ultimately dependent on the passage of time and the ploy it permitted, of an underwater rescue act for that stricken ship and its frozen story.

In fact, Cameron had known failure: The Abyss had rentals of less than half what it had cost. Against that, Aliens earned more than twice what it cost and the Terminator movies are both in the world record class for moving money. That class, of course, is headed by James Cameron, although Titanic was regarded as a disaster in Hollywood only months before it opened.

Avatar has Sigourney Weaver as a link to Cameron's history – the actor had her biggest hit in Aliens. And it takes us deep down beneath the sea, to a world that Cameron has explored with his own toys and equipment in the years since Titanic. Avatar is as strange a world as that under water but it seems emptier without Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslet. It has characters who seem like plants or spirits and, for the first time, Cameron has hardly bothered to put them in a compelling story. Avatar is trying to find a novel state of being.

From the moment it first appeared in film form – as a trailer used to help celebrate the opening of the new Dallas Cowboys football stadium – reactions split between dismay and bewilderment. It looked pretty, but hardly astonishing, dramatic or exciting. Indeed, it had too much of that awe Cameron felt in exploring the deepest recesses of the ocean. His talk about spiritual things may be an early defence, but I suspect it's the heart speaking, too. Nearly every profound moneymaker let loose on the world by Hollywood has had a deep (and often irrational) need to save or change the world. It's as if you can't be that successful without taking on great responsibilities.

That's always been the key to James Cameron, whether filming the intense combat sequences of Aliens or detecting the theme of motherhood in that film – remember the moment when Ripley (clutching her own orphan child) suddenly realises she has the power of life or death over the great monster's offspring? Aliens was widely interpreted as a feminist film, but it supplied very good reasons for men to be afraid of women. That's the moment, I suppose, to mention the fact that Cameron – king of the world – can't stay with a woman. Fifty-five at present, he is now on his fifth wife, Suzy Amis (who had a small role in Titanic).

So James Cameron is going down – he'll remember I said that, he'll remember if you half believed it. Not to worry. Down is an exciting place if you've only ever been up and it may inspire Cameron with a great story about debacle. On the other hand, until this weekend's box office figures are in no one knows if Avatar won't be another unexpected hit like Titanic. I don't think so. I'd bet on it. But I'm ready for the midnight call and "Told you so!"

What's it about?

The prequel show is the largest collection of puppetry in Cirque du Soleil history and The First Flight transports audiences to the mythical world of Pandora.

A Na'vi storyteller will narrate the mythical tale, set thousands of years before the events in the hit 2009 film, and long before any humans set foot on Pandora.

When a natural catastrophe threatens to destroy the sacred Tree of Souls, two Omatikaya boys, Ralu and Entu, fearlessly take matters into their own hands.

They set out together with their friend Tsyal, on a quest high up in the Floating Mountains to find the mighty red and orange predator that rules the Pandoran sky.

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In 2154, humans have depleted Earth's natural resources, leading to a severe energy crisis. The Resources Development Administration (RDA) mines a valuable mineral unobtanium on Pandora, a densely forested habitable moon orbiting Polyphemus, a fictional gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system. [10] Pandora, whose atmosphere is poisonous to humans, is inhabited by the Na'vi, a species of 10-foot tall (3.0 m), blue-skinned, sapient humanoids [37] that live in harmony with nature and worship a mother goddess named Eywa.

To explore Pandora's biosphere, scientists use Na'vi-human hybrids called "avatars", operated by genetically matched humans. Jake Sully, a paraplegic former Marine, replaces his deceased identical twin brother as an operator of one. Dr. Grace Augustine, head of the Avatar Program, considers Sully an inadequate replacement but accepts his assignment as a bodyguard. While escorting the avatars of Grace and fellow scientist Dr. Norm Spellman, Jake's avatar is attacked by a thanator and flees into the forest, where he is rescued by Neytiri, a female Na'vi. Witnessing an auspicious sign, she takes him to her clan. Neytiri's mother Mo'at, the clan's spiritual leader, orders her daughter to initiate Jake into their society.

Colonel Miles Quaritch, head of RDA's private security force, promises Jake that the company will restore his legs if he gathers information about the Na'vi and the clan's gathering place, a giant tree called Hometree, [38] which stands above the richest deposit of unobtanium in the area. When Grace learns of this, she transfers herself, Jake, and Norm to an outpost. Over the following three months, Jake and Neytiri fall in love as Jake grows to sympathize with the natives. After Jake is initiated into the tribe, he and Neytiri choose each other as mates. Soon afterward, Jake reveals his change of allegiance when he attempts to disable a bulldozer that threatens to destroy a sacred Na'vi site. When Quaritch shows a video recording of Jake's attack on the bulldozer to Administrator Parker Selfridge, [39] and another in which Jake admits that the Na'vi will never abandon Hometree, Selfridge orders Hometree destroyed.

Despite Grace's argument that destroying Hometree could damage the biological neural network native to Pandora, Selfridge gives Jake and Grace one hour to convince the Na'vi to evacuate before commencing the attack. Jake confesses to the Na'vi that he was a spy, and they take him and Grace captive. Quaritch's men destroy Hometree, killing Neytiri's father (the clan chief) and many others. Mo'at frees Jake and Grace, but they are detached from their avatars and imprisoned by Quaritch's forces. Pilot Trudy Chacón, disgusted by Quaritch's brutality, frees Jake, Grace, and Norm, and airlifts them to Grace's outpost, but Grace is shot by Quaritch during the escape.

To regain the Na'vi's trust, Jake connects his mind to that of Toruk, a dragon-like predator feared and honored by the Na'vi. Jake finds the refugees at the sacred Tree of Souls and pleads with Mo'at to heal Grace. The clan attempts to transfer Grace from her human body into her avatar with the aid of the Tree of Souls, but she dies before the process can be completed. Supported by the new chief Tsu'tey, Jake unites the clan and tells them to gather all of the clans to battle the RDA. Quaritch organizes a pre-emptive strike against the Tree of Souls, believing that its destruction will demoralize the natives. On the eve of battle, Jake prays to Eywa, via a neural connection with the Tree of Souls, to intercede on behalf of the Na'vi.

During the subsequent battle, the Na'vi suffer heavy casualties, including Tsu'tey and Trudy, but are rescued when Pandoran wildlife unexpectedly join the attack and overwhelm the humans, which Neytiri interprets as Eywa's answer to Jake's prayer. Jake destroys a makeshift bomber before it can reach the Tree of Souls Quaritch, wearing an AMP suit, escapes from his own damaged aircraft, then later finds and breaks open the avatar link unit containing Jake's human body, exposing it to Pandora's poisonous atmosphere. Quaritch prepares to slit the throat of Jake's avatar, but Neytiri kills Quaritch and saves Jake from suffocation, seeing his human form for the first time.

With the exceptions of Jake, Norm and a select few others, all humans are expelled from Pandora and sent back to Earth. Jake is permanently transferred into his avatar with the aid of the Tree of Souls.


  • Sam Worthington as Jake Sully, a disabled former Marine who becomes part of the Avatar Program after his twin brother is killed. His military background helps the Na'vi warriors relate to him. Cameron cast the Australian actor after a worldwide search for promising young actors, preferring relative unknowns to keep the budget down. [40] Worthington, who was living in his car at the time, [41] auditioned twice early in development, [42] and he has signed on for possible sequels. [43] Cameron felt that because Worthington had not done a major film, he would give the character "a quality that is really real". Cameron said he "has that quality of being a guy you'd want to have a beer with, and he ultimately becomes a leader who transforms the world". [44] Worthington also briefly appears as Jake's deceased identical twin, Tommy. as Colonel Miles Quaritch, the head of the mining operation's security detail. Fiercely consistent in his disregard for any life not recognized as human, he has a profound disregard for Pandora's inhabitants that is evident in both his actions and his language. Lang had unsuccessfully auditioned for a role in Cameron's Aliens (1986), but the director remembered Lang and sought him for Avatar. [45]Michael Biehn, who had worked with Cameron in Aliens, The Terminator and Terminator 2: Judgment Day, was briefly considered for the role. He read the script and watched some of the 3-D footage with Cameron [46] but was ultimately not cast. as Dr. Grace Augustine, an exobiologist and head of the Avatar Program. She is also Sully's mentor and an advocate of peaceful relations with the Na'vi, having set up a school to teach them English. [47] as Trudy Chacón, a combat pilot assigned to support the Avatar Program who is sympathetic to the Na'vi. Cameron had wanted to work with Rodriguez since seeing her in Girlfight. [45] as Parker Selfridge, the corporate administrator for the RDA mining operation. [48] While he is at first willing to destroy the Na'vi civilization to preserve the company's bottom line, he is reluctant to authorize the attacks on the Na'vi and taint his image, doing so only after Quaritch persuades him that it is necessary and that the attacks will be humane. When the attacks are broadcast to the base, Selfridge displays discomfort at the violence. as Dr. Norm Spellman, a xenoanthropologist [49] who studies plant and animal life as part of the Avatar Program. [50] He arrives on Pandora at the same time as Jake and operates an avatar. Although he is expected to lead the diplomatic contact with the Na'vi, it turns out that Jake has the personality better suited to win the natives' respect. as Dr. Max Patel, a scientist who works in the Avatar Program and comes to support Jake's rebellion against the RDA. [51]
  • Zoe Saldana as Neytiri, the daughter of the leader of the Omaticaya (the Na'vi clan central to the story). She is attracted to Jake because of his bravery, though frustrated with him for what she sees as his naiveté and stupidity. She serves as Jake's love interest. [52] The character, like all the Na'vi, was created using performance capture, and its visual aspect is entirely computer generated. [53] Saldana has also signed on for potential sequels. [54] as Mo'at, the Omaticaya's spiritual leader, Neytiri's mother, and consort to clan leader Eytukan. [55] as Eytukan, the Omaticaya's clan leader, Neytiri's father, and Mo'at's mate. as Tsu'tey, the finest warrior of the Omaticaya. He is heir to the chieftainship of the tribe. At the beginning of the film's story, he is betrothed to Neytiri.


In 1994, [14] director James Cameron wrote an 80-page treatment for Avatar, drawing inspiration from "every single science fiction book" he had read in his childhood as well as from adventure novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs and H. Rider Haggard. [13] In August 1996 , Cameron announced that after completing Titanic, he would film Avatar, which would make use of synthetic, or computer-generated, actors. [16] The project would cost $100 million and involve at least six actors in leading roles "who appear to be real but do not exist in the physical world". [56] Visual effects house Digital Domain, with whom Cameron has a partnership, joined the project, which was supposed to begin production in mid-1997 for a 1999 release. [15] However, Cameron felt that the technology had not caught up with the story and vision that he intended to tell. He decided to concentrate on making documentaries and refining the technology for the next few years. It was revealed in a Bloomberg BusinessWeek cover story that 20th Century Fox had fronted $10 million to Cameron to film a proof-of-concept clip for Avatar, which he showed to Fox executives in October 2005 . [57]

In February 2006, Cameron revealed that his film Project 880 was "a retooled version of Avatar", a film that he had tried to make years earlier, [58] citing the technological advances in the creation of the computer-generated characters Gollum, King Kong, and Davy Jones. [13] Cameron had chosen Avatar over his project Battle Angel after completing a five-day camera test in the previous year. [59]


From January to April 2006, Cameron worked on the script and developed a culture for the film's aliens, the Na'vi. Their language was created by Dr. Paul Frommer, a linguist at USC. [13] The Na'vi language has a lexicon of about 1000 words, with some 30 added by Cameron. The tongue's phonemes include ejective consonants (such as the "kx" in "skxawng") that are found in the Amharic language of Ethiopia, and the initial "ng" that Cameron may have taken from New Zealand Māori. [18] Actress Sigourney Weaver and the film's set designers met with Jodie S. Holt, professor of plant physiology at University of California, Riverside, to learn about the methods used by botanists to study and sample plants, and to discuss ways to explain the communication between Pandora's organisms depicted in the film. [60]

From 2005 to 2007, Cameron worked with a handful of designers, including famed fantasy illustrator Wayne Barlowe and renowned concept artist Jordu Schell, to shape the design of the Na'vi with paintings and physical sculptures when Cameron felt that 3-D brush renderings were not capturing his vision, [61] often working together in the kitchen of Cameron's Malibu home. [62] In July 2006 , Cameron announced that he would film Avatar for a mid-2008 release and planned to begin principal photography with an established cast by February 2007 . [63] The following August, the visual effects studio Weta Digital signed on to help Cameron produce Avatar. [64] Stan Winston, who had collaborated with Cameron in the past, joined Avatar to help with the film's designs. [65] Production design for the film took several years. The film had two different production designers, and two separate art departments, one of which focused on the flora and fauna of Pandora, and another that created human machines and human factors. [66] In September 2006 , Cameron was announced to be using his own Reality Camera System to film in 3-D. The system would use two high-definition cameras in a single camera body to create depth perception. [67]

While these preparations were underway, Fox kept wavering in its commitment to Avatar because of its painful experience with cost overruns and delays on Cameron's previous picture, Titanic, even though Cameron rewrote the script to combine several characters together and offered to cut his fee in case the film flopped. [57] Cameron installed a traffic light with the amber signal lit outside of co-producer Jon Landau's office to represent the film's uncertain future. [57] In mid-2006, Fox told Cameron "in no uncertain terms that they were passing on this film," so he began shopping it around to other studios and approached Walt Disney Studios, showing his proof of concept to then chairman Dick Cook. [57] However, when Disney attempted to take over, Fox exercised its right of first refusal. [57] In October 2006 , Fox finally agreed to commit to making Avatar after Ingenious Media agreed to back the film, which reduced Fox's financial exposure to less than half of the film's official $237 million budget. [57] After Fox accepted Avatar, one skeptical Fox executive shook his head and told Cameron and Landau, "I don't know if we're crazier for letting you do this, or if you're crazier for thinking you can do this . " [68]

External audio
James Cameron interviewed by F. X. Feeney on writing Avatar.
Interview [69]

In December 2006, Cameron described Avatar as "a futuristic tale set on a planet 200 years hence . an old-fashioned jungle adventure with an environmental conscience [that] aspires to a mythic level of storytelling". [70] The January 2007 press release described the film as "an emotional journey of redemption and revolution" and said the story is of "a wounded former Marine, thrust unwillingly into an effort to settle and exploit an exotic planet rich in biodiversity, who eventually crosses over to lead the indigenous race in a battle for survival". The story would be of an entire world complete with an ecosystem of phantasmagorical plants and creatures, and native people with a rich culture and language. [54]

Estimates put the cost of the film at about $280–310 million to produce and an estimated $150 million for marketing, noting that about $30 million in tax credits would lessen the financial impact on the studio and its financiers. [19] [20] [21] A studio spokesperson said that the budget was "$237 million, with $150 million for promotion, end of story." [4]

Themes and inspirations

Avatar is primarily an action-adventure journey of self-discovery, in the context of imperialism, and deep ecology. [71] Cameron said his inspiration was "every single science fiction book I read as a kid" and that he wanted to update the style of Edgar Rice Burroughs' John Carter series. [42] He acknowledged that Avatar shares themes with the films At Play in the Fields of the Lord, The Emerald Forest, and Princess Mononoke, which feature clashes between cultures and civilizations, and with Dances with Wolves, where a battered soldier finds himself drawn to the culture he was initially fighting against. [72] [73] He also cited Hayao Miyazaki's anime films such as Princess Mononoke as an influence on the ecosystem of Pandora. [73]

In 2012, Cameron filed a 45-page legal declaration that intended to "describe in great detail the genesis of the ideas, themes, storylines, and images that came to be Avatar." [74] In addition to historical events (such as European colonization of the Americas), his life experiences and several of his unproduced projects, Cameron drew connections between Avatar and his previous films. He cited his script and concept art for Xenogenesis, partially produced as a short film, as being the basis for many of the ideas and visual designs in Avatar. He stated that Avatar's "concepts of a world mind, intelligence within nature, the idea of projecting force or consciousness using an avatar, colonization of alien planets, greedy corporate interests backed up by military force, the story of a seemingly weaker group prevailing over a technologically superior force, and the good scientist were all established and recurrent themes" from his earlier films including Aliens, The Abyss, Rambo: First Blood Part II, The Terminator and Terminator 2: Judgment Day. He specifically mentioned the "water tentacle" in The Abyss as an example of an "avatar" that "takes on the appearance of. an alien life form. in order to bridge the cultural gap and build trust." [75]

Cameron also cited a number of works by other creators as "reference points and sources of inspiration" for Avatar. These include two of his "favorite" films, 2001: A Space Odyssey, where mankind experiences an evolution after meeting alien life, and Lawrence of Arabia, where "an outsider. encounters and immerses into a foreign culture and then ultimately joins that group to fight other outsiders." Cameron said he became familiar with the concept of a human operating a "synthetic avatar" inside another world from George Henry Smith's short story "In the Imagicon" and Arthur C. Clarke's novel The City and the Stars. He said he learned of the term "avatar" by reading the cyberpunk novels Neuromancer by William Gibson and Islands in the Net by Bruce Sterling. The idea of a "world mind" originated in the novel Solaris by Stanislaw Lem. Cameron mentioned several other films about people interacting with "indigenous cultures" as inspiring him, including Dances With Wolves, The Man Who Would Be King, The Mission, The Emerald Forest, Medicine Man, The Jungle Book and FernGully. He also cited as inspiration the John Carter and Tarzan stories by Edgar Rice Burroughs and other adventure stories by Rudyard Kipling and H. Rider Haggard. [75]

In a 2007 interview with Time magazine, Cameron was asked about the meaning of the term Avatar, to which he replied, "It's an incarnation of one of the Hindu gods taking a flesh form. In this film what that means is that the human technology in the future is capable of injecting a human's intelligence into a remotely located body, a biological body." [12] Cameron also cited the Japanese cyberpunk manga and anime Ghost in the Shell, in terms of how humans can remotely control, and transfer their personalities into, alien bodies. [76] [77]

The look of the Na'vi – the humanoids indigenous to Pandora – was inspired by a dream that Cameron's mother had, long before he started work on Avatar. In her dream, she saw a blue-skinned woman 12 feet ( 4 m ) tall, which he thought was "kind of a cool image". [71] Also he said, "I just like blue. It's a good color . plus, there's a connection to the Hindu deities, [78] which I like conceptually." [79] He included similar creatures in his first screenplay (written in 1976 or 1977), which featured a planet with a native population of "gorgeous" tall blue aliens. The Na'vi were based on them. [71]

For the love story between characters Jake and Neytiri, Cameron applied a star-crossed love theme, which he said was in the tradition of Romeo and Juliet. [75] He acknowledged its similarity to the pairing of Jack and Rose from his film Titanic. An interviewer stated, "Both couples come from radically different cultures that are contemptuous of their relationship and are forced to choose sides between the competing communities." [80] Cameron described Neytiri as his "Pocahontas," saying that his plotline followed the historical story of a "white outsider [who] falls in love with the chief's daughter, who becomes his guide to the tribe and to their special bond with nature." [75] Cameron felt that whether or not the Jake and Neytiri love story would be perceived as believable partially hinged on the physical attractiveness of Neytiri's alien appearance, which was developed by considering her appeal to the all-male crew of artists. [81] Although Cameron felt Jake and Neytiri do not fall in love right away, their portrayers (Worthington and Saldana) felt the characters did. Cameron said the two actors "had a great chemistry" during filming. [80]

For the film's floating "Hallelujah Mountains", the designers drew inspiration from "many different types of mountains, but mainly the karst limestone formations in China." [83] According to production designer Dylan Cole, the fictional floating rocks were inspired by Huangshan (also known as Yellow Mountain), Guilin, Zhangjiajie, among others around the world. [83] Cameron had noted the influence of the Chinese peaks on the design of the floating mountains. [84]

To create the interiors of the human mining colony on Pandora, production designers visited the Noble Clyde Boudreaux [85] oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico during June 2007 . They photographed, measured and filmed every aspect of the platform, which was later replicated on-screen with photorealistic CGI during post-production. [86]

Cameron said that he wanted to make "something that has this spoonful of sugar of all the action and the adventure and all that" but also have a conscience "that maybe in the enjoying of it makes you think a little bit about the way you interact with nature and your fellow man". He added that "the Na'vi represent something that is our higher selves, or our aspirational selves, what we would like to think we are" and that even though there are good humans within the film, the humans "represent what we know to be the parts of ourselves that are trashing our world and maybe condemning ourselves to a grim future". [87]

Cameron acknowledges that Avatar implicitly criticizes the United States' role in the Iraq War and the impersonal nature of mechanized warfare in general. In reference to the use of the term shock and awe in the film, Cameron said, "We know what it feels like to launch the missiles. We don't know what it feels like for them to land on our home soil, not in America." [88] He said in later interviews, ". I think it's very patriotic to question a system that needs to be corralled . " [89] and, "The film is definitely not anti-American." [90] A scene in the film portrays the violent destruction of the towering Na'vi Hometree, which collapses in flames after a missile attack, coating the landscape with ash and floating embers. Asked about the scene's resemblance to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center, Cameron said he had been "surprised at how much it did look like September 11 ". [88]


Principal photography for Avatar began in April 2007 in Los Angeles and Wellington. Cameron described the film as a hybrid with a full live-action shoot in combination with computer-generated characters and live environments. "Ideally at the end of the day the audience has no idea which they're looking at," Cameron said. The director indicated that he had already worked four months on nonprincipal scenes for the film. [91] The live action was shot with a modified version of the proprietary digital 3-D Fusion Camera System, developed by Cameron and Vince Pace. [92] In January 2007 , Fox had announced that 3-D filming for Avatar would be done at 24 frames per second despite Cameron's strong opinion that a 3-D film requires higher frame rate to make strobing less noticeable. [93] According to Cameron, the film is composed of 60% computer-generated elements and 40% live action, as well as traditional miniatures. [94]

Motion-capture photography lasted 31 days at the Hughes Aircraft stage in Playa Vista in Los Angeles. [59] [95] Live action photography began in October 2007 at Stone Street Studios in Wellington and was scheduled to last 31 days. [96] More than a thousand people worked on the production. [95] In preparation of the filming sequences, all of the actors underwent professional training specific to their characters such as archery, horseback riding, firearm use, and hand-to-hand combat. They received language and dialect training in the Na'vi language created for the film. [97] Before shooting the film, Cameron also sent the cast to the Hawaiian tropical rainforests [98] to get a feel for a rainforest setting before shooting on the soundstage. [97]

During filming, Cameron made use of his virtual camera system, a new way of directing motion-capture filmmaking. The system shows the actors' virtual counterparts in their digital surroundings in real time, allowing the director to adjust and direct scenes just as if shooting live action. According to Cameron, "It's like a big, powerful game engine. If I want to fly through space, or change my perspective, I can. I can turn the whole scene into a living miniature and go through it on a 50 to 1 scale." [99] Using conventional techniques, the complete virtual world cannot be seen until the motion-capture of the actors is complete. Cameron said this process does not diminish the value or importance of acting. On the contrary, because there is no need for repeated camera and lighting setups, costume fittings and make-up touch-ups, scenes do not need to be interrupted repeatedly. [100] Cameron described the system as a "form of pure creation where if you want to move a tree or a mountain or the sky or change the time of day, you have complete control over the elements". [101]

Cameron gave fellow directors Steven Spielberg and Peter Jackson a chance to test the new technology. [70] Spielberg said, "I like to think of it as digital makeup, not augmented animation . Motion capture brings the director back to a kind of intimacy that actors and directors only know when they're working in live theater." [100] Spielberg and George Lucas were also able to visit the set to watch Cameron direct with the equipment. [102]

To film the shots where CGI interacts with live action, a unique camera referred to as a "simulcam" was used, a merger of the 3-D fusion camera and the virtual camera systems. While filming live action in real time with the simulcam, the CGI images captured with the virtual camera or designed from scratch, are superimposed over the live action images as in augmented reality and shown on a small monitor, making it possible for the director to instruct the actors how to relate to the virtual material in the scene. [97]

Due to Cameron's personal convictions about climate change, he allowed only plant-based (vegan) food to be served on set. [103]

Visual effects

A number of innovative visual effects techniques were used during production. According to Cameron, work on the film had been delayed since the 1990s to allow the techniques to reach the necessary degree of advancement to adequately portray his vision of the film. [15] [16] The director planned to make use of photorealistic computer-generated characters, created using new motion capture animation technologies he had been developing in the 14 months leading up to December 2006 . [99]

Innovations include a new system for lighting massive areas like Pandora's jungle, [105] a motion-capture stage or "volume" six times larger than any previously used, and an improved method of capturing facial expressions, enabling full performance capture. To achieve the face capturing, actors wore individually made skull caps fitted with a tiny camera positioned in front of the actors' faces the information collected about their facial expressions and eyes is then transmitted to computers. [106] According to Cameron, the method allows the filmmakers to transfer 100% of the actors' physical performances to their digital counterparts. [107] Besides the performance capture data which were transferred directly to the computers, numerous reference cameras gave the digital artists multiple angles of each performance. [108] A technically challenging scene was near the end of the film when the computer-generated Neytiri held the live action Jake in human form, and attention was given to the details of the shadows and reflected light between them. [109]

The lead visual effects company was Weta Digital in Wellington, at one point employing 900 people to work on the film. [110] Because of the huge amount of data which needed to be stored, cataloged and available for everybody involved, even on the other side of the world, a new cloud computing and Digital Asset Management (DAM) system named Gaia was created by Microsoft especially for Avatar, which allowed the crews to keep track of and coordinate all stages in the digital processing. [111] To render Avatar, Weta used a 930 m 2 (10,000 sq ft) server farm making use of 4,000 Hewlett-Packard servers with 35,000 processor cores with 104 terabytes of RAM and three petabytes of network area storage running Ubuntu Linux, Grid Engine cluster manager, and 2 of the animation software and managers, Pixar's RenderMan and Pixar's Alfred queue management system. [112] [113] [114] [115] The render farm occupies the 193rd to 197th spots in the TOP500 list of the world's most powerful supercomputers. A new texturing and paint software system, called Mari, was developed by The Foundry in cooperation with Weta. [116] [117] Creating the Na'vi characters and the virtual world of Pandora required over a petabyte of digital storage, [118] and each minute of the final footage for Avatar occupies 17.28 gigabytes of storage. [119] It would often take the computer several hours to render a single frame of the film. [120] To help finish preparing the special effects sequences on time, a number of other companies were brought on board, including Industrial Light & Magic, which worked alongside Weta Digital to create the battle sequences. ILM was responsible for the visual effects for many of the film's specialized vehicles and devised a new way to make CGI explosions. [121] Joe Letteri was the film's visual effects general supervisor. [122]

Music and soundtrack

Composer James Horner scored the film, his third collaboration with Cameron after Aliens and Titanic. [123] Horner recorded parts of the score with a small chorus singing in the alien language Na'vi in March 2008 . [124] He also worked with Wanda Bryant, an ethnomusicologist, to create a music culture for the alien race. [125] The first scoring sessions were planned to take place in early 2009. [126] During production, Horner promised Cameron that he would not work on any other project except for Avatar and reportedly worked on the score from four in the morning until ten at night throughout the process. He stated in an interview, "Avatar has been the most difficult film I have worked on and the biggest job I have undertaken." [127] Horner composed the score as two different scores merged into one. He first created a score that reflected the Na'vi way of sound and then combined it with a separate "traditional" score to drive the film. [97] British singer Leona Lewis was chosen to sing the theme song for the film, called "I See You". An accompanying music video, directed by Jake Nava, premiered December 15 , 2009, on MySpace. [128]


The first photo of the film was released on August 14 , 2009, [129] and Empire released exclusive images from the film in its October issue. [130] Cameron, producer Jon Landau, Zoe Saldana, Stephen Lang, and Sigourney Weaver appeared at a panel, moderated by Tom Rothman, at the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con on July 23 . Twenty-five minutes of footage was screened [131] in Dolby 3D. [132] Weaver and Cameron appeared at additional panels to promote the film, speaking on the 23rd [133] and 24th [134] respectively. James Cameron announced at the Comic-Con Avatar Panel that August 21 will be 'Avatar Day'. On this day, the trailer was released in all theatrical formats. The official game trailer and toy line of the film were also unveiled on this day. [135]

The 129-second trailer was released online on August 20 , 2009. [136] The new 210-second trailer was premiered in theaters on October 23 , 2009, then soon after premiered online on Yahoo! on October 29 , 2009, to positive reviews. [137] [138] An extended version in IMAX 3D received overwhelmingly positive reviews. [136] The Hollywood Reporter said that audience expectations were colored by "the [same] establishment skepticism that preceded Titanic" and suggested the showing reflected the desire for original storytelling. [139] The teaser has been among the most viewed trailers in the history of film marketing, reaching the first place of all trailers viewed on Apple.com with 4 million views. [140] On October 30, to celebrate the opening of the first 3-D cinema in Vietnam, Fox allowed Megastar Cinema to screen exclusive 16 minutes of Avatar to a number of press. [141] The three-and-a-half-minute trailer of the film premiered live on November 1 , 2009, during a Dallas Cowboys football game at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas, on the Diamond Vision screen, one of the world's largest video displays, and to TV audiences viewing the game on Fox. It is said to be the largest live motion picture trailer viewing in history. [142]

The Coca-Cola Company collaborated with Fox to launch a worldwide marketing campaign to promote the film. The highlight of the campaign was the website AVTR.com. Specially marked bottles and cans of Coca-Cola Zero, when held in front of a webcam, enabled users to interact with the website's 3-D features using augmented reality (AR) technology. [143] The film was heavily promoted in an episode of the Fox Network series Bones in the episode "The Gamer In The Grease" (Season 5, Episode 9). Avatar star Joel David Moore has a recurring role on the program, and is seen in the episode anxiously awaiting the release of the film. [144] A week prior to the American release, Zoe Saldana promoted the film on Adult Swim when she was interviewed by an animated Space Ghost. [145] McDonald's had a promotion mentioned in television commercials in Europe called "Avatarize yourself", which encouraged people to go to the website set up by Oddcast, and use a photograph of themselves to change into a Na'vi. [146]


Avatar: A Confidential Report on the Biological and Social History of Pandora, a 224-page book in the form of a field guide to the film's fictional setting of the planet of Pandora, was released by Harper Entertainment on November 24 , 2009. [147] It is presented as a compilation of data collected by the humans about Pandora and the life on it, written by Maria Wilhelm and Dirk Mathison. HarperFestival also released Wilhelm's 48-page James Cameron's Avatar: The Reusable Scrapbook for children. [148] The Art of Avatar was released on November 30 , 2009, by Abrams Books. The book features detailed production artwork from the film, including production sketches, illustrations by Lisa Fitzpatrick, and film stills. Producer Jon Landau wrote the foreword, Cameron wrote the epilogue, and director Peter Jackson wrote the preface. [149] In October 2010 , Abrams Books also released The Making of Avatar, a 272-page book that detailed the film's production process and contains over 500 color photographs and illustrations. [150]

In a 2009 interview, Cameron said that he planned to write a novel version of Avatar after the film was released. [151] In February 2010 , producer Jon Landau stated that Cameron plans a prequel novel for Avatar that will "lead up to telling the story of the movie, but it would go into much more depth about all the stories that we didn't have time to deal with", saying that "Jim wants to write a novel that is a big, epic story that fills in a lot of things". [152] In August 2013 it was announced that Cameron hired Steven Gould to pen four standalone novels to expand the Avatar universe. [153]

Video game

Cameron chose Ubisoft Montreal to create an Avatar game for the film in 2007. The filmmakers and game developers collaborated heavily, and Cameron decided to include some of Ubisoft's vehicle and creature designs in the film. [154] James Cameron's Avatar: The Game was released on December 1 , 2009, [155] for most home video game consoles (PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Wii, Nintendo DS, iPhone) and Microsoft Windows, and December 8 for PlayStation Portable.

Action figures and postage stamps

Mattel Toys announced in December 2009 that it would be introducing a line of Avatar action figures. [156] [157] Each action figure will be made with a 3-D web tag, called an i-TAG, that consumers can scan using a web cam, revealing unique on-screen content that is exclusive to each specific action figure. [156] A series of toys representing six different characters from the film were also distributed globally in McDonald's Happy Meals. [158] [159]

In December 2009, France Post released a special limited edition stamp based on Avatar, coinciding with the film's worldwide release. [160]

Initial screening

Avatar premiered in London on December 10 , 2009, and was released theatrically worldwide from December 16 to 18. [161] The film was originally set for release on May 22 , 2009, during filming, [162] but was pushed back to allow more post-production time (the last shots were delivered in November), [105] and to give more time for theaters worldwide to install 3D projectors. [163] Cameron stated that the film's aspect ratio would be 1.78:1 for 3D screenings and that a 2.39:1 image would be extracted for 2D screenings. [164] However, a 3D 2.39:1 extract was approved for use with constant-image-height screens (i.e. screens which increase in width to display 2.39:1 films). [165] During a 3D preview showing in Germany on December 16 , the movie's DRM 'protection' system failed, and some copies delivered could not be watched at all in the theaters. The problems were fixed in time for the public premiere. [166] Avatar was released in a total of 3,457 theaters in the US, of which 2,032 theaters ran it in 3D. In total 90% of all advance ticket sales for Avatar were for 3D screenings. [167]

Internationally, Avatar opened on a total of 14,604 screens in 106 territories, of which 3,671 were showing the film in 3D (producing 56% of the first weekend gross). [168] [169] The film was simultaneously presented in IMAX 3D format, opening in 178 theaters in the United States on December 18 . The international IMAX release included 58 theaters beginning on December 16 , and 25 more theaters were to be added in the coming weeks. [170] The IMAX release was the company's widest to date, a total of 261 theaters worldwide. The previous IMAX record opening was Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, which opened in 161 IMAX theaters in the US, and about 70 international. [171] 20th Century Fox Korea adapted and later released Avatar in 4D version, which included "moving seats, smells of explosives, sprinkling water, laser lights and wind". [22]

Box office


Avatar was released internationally on more than 14,000 screens. [172] It earned $3,537,000 from midnight screenings domestically (United States and Canada), with the initial 3D release limited to 2,200 screens. [173] The film earned $26,752,099 on its opening day, and $77,025,481 over its opening weekend, making it the second-largest December opening ever behind I Am Legend, [25] [6] the largest domestic opening weekend for a film not based on a franchise (topping The Incredibles), the highest opening weekend for a film entirely in 3D (breaking Up ' s record), [174] the highest opening weekend for an environmentalist film (breaking The Day After Tomorrow ' s record), [175] and the 40th largest opening weekend in North America, [6] despite a blizzard that blanketed the East Coast of the United States and reportedly hurt its opening weekend results. [19] [25] [26] The film also set an IMAX opening weekend record, with 178 theaters generating approximately $9.5 million, 12% of the film's $77 million (at the time) North American gross on less than 3% of the screens. [170]

International markets generating opening weekend tallies of at least $10 million were for Russia ($19.7 million), France ($17.4 million), the UK ($13.8 million), Germany ($13.3 million), South Korea ($11.7 million), Australia ($11.5 million), and Spain ($11.0 million). [6] Avatar ' s worldwide gross was US$241.6 million after five days, the ninth largest opening-weekend gross of all time, and the largest for a non-franchise, non-sequel and original film. [176] 58 international IMAX screens generated an estimated $4.1 million during the opening weekend. [170]

Revenues in the film's second weekend decreased by only 1.8% in domestic markets, marking a rare occurrence, [177] earning $75,617,183, to remain in first place at the box office [178] and recording what was then the biggest second weekend of all time. [179] The film experienced another marginal decrease in revenue in its third weekend, dropping 9.4% to $68,490,688 domestically, remaining in first place at the box office, [180] to set a third-weekend record. [181]

Avatar crossed the $1 billion mark on the 19th day of its international release, making it the first film to reach this mark in only 19 days. [182] It became the fifth film grossing more than $1 billion worldwide, and the only film of 2009 to do so. [183] In its fourth weekend, Avatar continued to lead the box office domestically, setting a new all-time fourth-weekend record of $50,306,217, [184] and becoming the highest-grossing 2009 release in the United States. [185] In the film's fifth weekend, it set the Martin Luther King Day weekend record, grossing $54,401,446, [186] and set a fifth-weekend record with a take of $42,785,612. [187] It held the top spot to set the sixth and seventh weekend records earning $34,944,081 [188] and $31,280,029 [189] respectively. It was the fastest film to gross $600 million domestically, on its 47th day in theaters. [190]

On January 31 , it became the first film to earn over $2 billion worldwide, [191] and it became the first film to gross over $700 million in the U.S. and Canada, on February 27 , after 72 days of release. [192] It remained at number one at the domestic box office for seven consecutive weeks – the most consecutive No. 1 weekends since Titanic spent 15 weekends at No.1 in 1997 and 1998 [193] – and also spent 11 consecutive weekends at the top of the box office outside the United States and Canada, breaking the record of nine consecutive weekends set by Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest. [194] By the end of its first theatrical release Avatar had grossed $749,766,139 in the U.S. and Canada, and $1,999,298,189 in other territories, for a worldwide total of $2,749,064,328. [6]

Including the revenue from a re-release of Avatar featuring extended footage, Avatar grossed $760,507,625 in the U.S. and Canada, and $2,029,172,169 in other countries for a worldwide total of $2,789,679,794. [6] Avatar has set a number of box office records during its release: on January 25 , 2010, it surpassed Titanic ' s worldwide gross to become the highest-grossing film of all time worldwide 41 days after its international release, [195] [196] [197] just two days after taking the foreign box office record. [198] On February 2 , 47 days after its domestic release, Avatar surpassed Titanic to become the highest-grossing film of all time in Canada and the United States. [199] It became the highest-grossing film of all time in at least 30 other countries [200] [201] [202] [203] [204] [205] and is the first film to earn over $2 billion in foreign box office receipts. 10 years later until the release of Avengers: Endgame which gross $2.797 billion. [28] IMAX ticket sales account for $243.3 million of its worldwide gross, [206] more than double the previous record. [207]

Box Office Mojo estimates that after adjusting for the rise in average ticket prices, Avatar would be the 14th-highest-grossing film of all time in North America. [208] Box Office Mojo also observes that the higher ticket prices for 3D and IMAX screenings have had a significant impact on Avatar ' s gross it estimated, on April 21 , 2010, that Avatar had sold approximately 75 million tickets in North American theaters, more than any other film since 1999's Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. [209] On a worldwide basis, when Avatar ' s gross stood at $2 billion just 35 days into its run, The Daily Telegraph estimated its gross was surpassed by only Gone with the Wind ($3.0 billion), Titanic ($2.9 billion), and Star Wars ($2.2 billion) after adjusting for inflation to 2010 prices, [210] with Avatar ultimately winding up with $2.8 billion by the end of its run in 2010. [6] Reuters even placed it ahead of Titanic after adjusting the global total for inflation. [211] The 2015 edition of Guinness World Records lists Avatar only behind Gone with the Wind in terms of adjusted grosses worldwide. [212] [213] '

Commercial analysis

Before its release, various film critics and fan communities predicted the film would be a significant disappointment at the box office, in line with predictions made for Cameron's previous blockbuster Titanic. [214] [215] [216] This criticism ranged from Avatar ' s film budget, to its concept and use of 3-D "blue cat people". [214] [215] Slate magazine's Daniel Engber complimented the 3D effects, but criticized them for reminding him of certain CGI characters from the Star Wars prequel films and for having the "uncanny valley" effect. [217] The New York Times noted that 20th Century Fox executives had decided to release Alvin and the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel alongside Avatar, calling it a "secret weapon" to cover any unforeseeable losses at the box office. [218]

James Cameron on criticism of Avatar before its release. [215]

Box office analysts, on the other hand, estimated that the film would be a box office success. [214] [219] "The holy grail of 3-D has finally arrived," said an analyst for Exhibitor Relations. "This is why all these 3-D venues were built: for Avatar. This is the one. The behemoth." [219] The "cautionary estimate" was that Avatar would bring in around $60 million in its opening weekend. Others guessed higher. [219] [220] There were also analysts who believed that the film's three-dimensionality would help its box office performance, given that recent 3D films had been successful. [214]

Cameron said he felt the pressure of the predictions, but that pressure is good for film-makers. "It makes us think about our audiences and what the audience wants," he stated. "We owe them a good time. We owe them a piece of good entertainment." [215] Although he felt Avatar would appeal to everyone and that the film could not afford to have a target demographic, [215] he especially wanted hard-core science-fiction fans to see it: "If I can just get 'em in the damn theater, the film will act on them in the way it's supposed to, in terms of taking them on an amazing journey and giving them this rich emotional experience." [221] Cameron was aware of the sentiment that Avatar would need significant "repeat business" just to make up for its budget and achieve box office success, and believed Avatar could inspire the same "sharing" reaction as Titanic. He said that film worked because, "When people have an experience that's very powerful in the movie theatre, they want to go share it. They want to grab their friend and bring them, so that they can enjoy it. They want to be the person to bring them the news that this is something worth having in their life." [215]

After the film's release and unusually strong box office performance over its first two weeks, it was debated as the one film capable of surpassing Titanic ' s worldwide gross, and its continued strength perplexed box office analysts. [222] Other films in recent years had been cited as contenders for surpassing Titanic, such as 2008's The Dark Knight, [223] but Avatar was considered the first film with a genuine chance to do so, and its numbers being aided by higher ticket prices for 3D screenings [222] did not fully explain its success to box office analysts. "Most films are considered to be healthy if they manage anything less than a 50% drop from their first weekend to their second. Dipping just 11% from the first to the third is unheard of," said Paul Dergarabedian, president of box-office analysis for Hollywood.com. "This is just unprecedented. I had to do a double take. I thought it was a miscalculation." [177] Analysts predicted second place for the film's worldwide gross, but most were uncertain about it surpassing Titanic because "Today's films flame out much faster than they did when Titanic was released." [177] Brandon Gray, president of Box Office Mojo, believed in the film's chances of becoming the highest-grossing film of all time, though he also believed it was too early to surmise because it had only played during the holidays. He said, "While Avatar may beat Titanic ' s record, it will be tough, and the film is unlikely to surpass Titanic in attendance. Ticket prices were about $3 cheaper in the late 1990s." [177] Cameron said he did not think it was realistic to "try to topple Titanic off its perch" because it "just struck some kind of chord" and there had been other good films in recent years. [224] He changed his prediction by mid-January. "It's gonna happen. It's just a matter of time," he said. [225]

James Cameron on the success of Avatar [226]

Although analysts have been unable to agree that Avatar ' s success is attributable to one primary factor, several explanations have been advanced. First, January is historically "the dumping ground for the year's weakest films", and this also applied to 2010. [227] Cameron himself said he decided to open the film in December so that it would have less competition from then to January. [215] Titanic capitalized on the same January predictability, and earned most of its gross in 1998. [227] Additionally, Avatar established itself as a "must-see" event. Gray said, "At this point, people who are going to see Avatar are going to see Avatar and would even if the slate was strong." [227] Marketing the film as a "novelty factor" also helped. Fox positioned the film as a cinematic event that should be seen in the theaters. "It's really hard to sell the idea that you can have the same experience at home," stated David Mumpower, an analyst at BoxOfficeProphets.com. [227] The "Oscar buzz" surrounding the film and international viewings helped. "Two-thirds of Titanic ' s haul was earned overseas, and Avatar [tracked] similarly . Avatar opened in 106 markets globally and was No. 1 in all of them", and the markets "such as Russia, where Titanic saw modest receipts in 1997 and 1998, are white-hot today" with "more screens and moviegoers" than before. [227]

According to Variety, films in 3D accumulated $1.3 billion in 2009, "a threefold increase over 2008 and more than 10% of the total 2009 box-office gross". The increased ticket price – an average of $2 to $3 per ticket in most markets – helped the film. [227] Likewise, Entertainment Weekly attributed the film's success to 3D glasses, but also to its "astronomic word-of-mouth". Not only do some theaters charge up to $18.50 for IMAX tickets, but "the buzz" created by the new technology was the possible cause for sold-out screenings. [228] Gray said Avatar having no basis in previously established material makes its performance remarkable and even more impressive. "The movie might be derivative of many movies in its story and themes," he said, "but it had no direct antecedent like the other top-grossing films: Titanic (historical events), the Star Wars movies (an established film franchise), or The Lord of the Rings (literature). It was a tougher sell . " [227] The Hollywood Reporter estimated that after a combined production and promotion cost of between $387–437 million, the film turned a net profit of $1.2 billion. [229]

Critical reception

On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, 82% of 319 reviews are positive, and the average rating is 7.4/10. The site's consensus reads, "It might be more impressive on a technical level than as a piece of storytelling, but Avatar reaffirms James Cameron's singular gift for imaginative, absorbing filmmaking." [230] On Metacritic — which assigns a weighted mean score — the film has a score of 83 out of 100 based on 35 critics, indicating "universal acclaim". [231] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale. Every demographic surveyed was reported to give this rating. These polls also indicated that the main draw of the film was its use of 3D. [232]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times called the film "extraordinary" and gave it four stars out of four. "Watching Avatar, I felt sort of the same as when I saw Star Wars in 1977," he said, adding that like Star Wars and The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, the film "employs a new generation of special effects" and it "is not simply a sensational entertainment, although it is that. It's a technical breakthrough. It has a flat-out Green and anti-war message". [233] A. O. Scott of At The Movies also compared his viewing of the film to the first time he viewed Star Wars and he said "although the script is a little bit . obvious," it was "part of what made it work". [234] Todd McCarthy of Variety praised the film, saying "The King of the World sets his sights on creating another world entirely in Avatar, and it's very much a place worth visiting." [235] Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter gave the film a positive review. "The screen is alive with more action and the soundtrack pops with more robust music than any dozen sci-fi shoot-'em-ups you care to mention," he stated. [236] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone awarded Avatar a three-and-a-half out of four star rating and wrote in his print review "It extends the possibilities of what movies can do. Cameron's talent may just be as big as his dreams." [237] Richard Corliss of Time magazine thought that the film was "the most vivid and convincing creation of a fantasy world ever seen in the history of moving pictures." [238] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times thought the film has "powerful" visual accomplishments but "flat dialogue" and "obvious characterization". [239] James Berardinelli of ReelViews praised the film and its story, giving it four out of four stars he wrote "In 3-D, it's immersive – but the traditional film elements – story, character, editing, theme, emotional resonance, etc. – are presented with sufficient expertise to make even the 2-D version an engrossing 2 1 ⁄ 2 -hour experience." [240]

Avatar ' s underlying social and political themes attracted attention. Armond White of the New York Press wrote that Cameron used "villainous American characters" to "misrepresent facets of militarism, capitalism, and imperialism". [241] [242] Russell D. Moore of The Christian Post concluded that "propaganda exists in the film" and stated "If you can get a theater full of people in Kentucky to stand and applaud the defeat of their country in war, then you've got some amazing special effects." [243] Adam Cohen of The New York Times was more positive about the film, calling its anti-imperialist message "a 22nd-century version of the American colonists vs. the British, India vs. the Raj, or Latin America vs. United Fruit". [244] Ross Douthat of The New York Times opined that the film is "Cameron's long apologia for pantheism [. ] Hollywood's religion of choice for a generation now", [245] while Saritha Prabhu of The Tennessean called the film a "misportrayal of pantheism and Eastern spirituality in general", [246] and Maxim Osipov of The Hindustan Times, on the contrary, commended the film's message for its overall consistency with the teachings of Hinduism in the Bhagavad Gita. [247] Annalee Newitz of io9 concluded that Avatar is another film that has the recurring "fantasy about race" whereby "some white guy" becomes the "most awesome" member of a non-white culture. [248] Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune called Avatar "the season's ideological Rorschach blot", [249] while Miranda Devine of The Sydney Morning Herald thought that "It [was] impossible to watch Avatar without being banged over the head with the director's ideological hammer." [250] Nidesh Lawtoo believed that an essential, yet less visible social theme that contributed to Avatar ' s success concerns contemporary fascinations with virtual avatars and "the transition from the world of reality to that of virtual reality". [251]

Critics and audiences have cited similarities with other films, literature or media, describing the perceived connections in ways ranging from simple "borrowing" to outright plagiarism. Ty Burr of The Boston Globe called it "the same movie" as Dances with Wolves. [252] Like Dances with Wolves, Avatar has been characterized as being a "white savior" movie, in which a "backwards" native people is impotent without the leadership of a member of the invading white culture. [253] [254] Parallels to the concept and use of an avatar are in Poul Anderson's 1957 novelette "Call Me Joe", in which a paralyzed man uses his mind from orbit to control an artificial body on Jupiter. [255] [256] Cinema audiences in Russia have noted that Avatar has elements in common with the 1960s Noon Universe novels by Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, which are set in the 22nd century on a forested world called Pandora with a sentient indigenous species called the Nave. [257] Various reviews have compared Avatar to the films FernGully: The Last Rainforest, [258] [259] Pocahontas [260] and The Last Samurai. [261] NPR's Morning Edition has compared the film to a montage of tropes, with one commentator stating that Avatar was made by "mixing a bunch of film scripts in a blender". [262] Gary Westfahl wrote that "the science fiction story that most closely resembles Avatar has to be Ursula Le Guin's novella The Word for World Is Forest (1972), another epic about a benevolent race of alien beings who happily inhabit dense forests while living in harmony with nature until they are attacked and slaughtered by invading human soldiers who believe that the only good gook is a dead gook." [263] The science fiction writer and editor Gardner Dozois said that along with the Anderson and Le Guin stories, the "mash-up" included Alan Dean Foster's 1975 novel, Midworld. [264] Some sources saw similarities to the artwork of Roger Dean, which featured fantastic images of floating rock formations and dragons. [265] [266] In 2013, Dean sued Cameron and Fox, claiming that Pandora was inspired by 14 of his images. Dean sought damages of $50m. [267] Dean's case was dismissed in 2014, and The Hollywood Reporter noted that Cameron has won multiple Avatar idea theft cases. [268]

Avatar received compliments from filmmakers, with Steven Spielberg praising it as "the most evocative and amazing science-fiction movie since Star Wars" and others calling it "audacious and awe inspiring", "master class", and "brilliant". Noted art director-turned-filmmaker Roger Christian is also a noted fan of the film. [269] On the other hand, Duncan Jones said: "It's not in my top three James Cameron films. . [A]t what point in the film did you have any doubt what was going to happen next?". [270] For French filmmaker Luc Besson, Avatar opened the doors for him to now create an adaptation of the graphic novel series Valérian and Laureline that technologically supports the scope of its source material, with Besson even throwing his original script in the trash and redoing it after seeing the film. [271] TIME ranked Avatar number 3 in their list of "The 10 Greatest Movies of the Millennium (Thus Far)" [272] also earning it a spot on the magazine's All-Time 100 list, [273] and IGN listed Avatar as number 22 on their list of the top 25 Sci-Fi movies of all time. [274]


The New York Film Critics Online honored the film with its Best Picture award. [276] The film also won the Critics' Choice Awards of the Broadcast Film Critics Association for Best Action Film and several technical categories, out of nine nominations. [277] It won two of the St. Louis Film Critics awards: Best Visual Effects and Most Original, Innovative or Creative Film. [278] The film also won the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA) award for Production Design and Special Visual Effects, and was nominated for seven others, including Best Film and Director. [279] The film has received numerous other major awards, nominations and honors.

Special Edition re-release

In July 2010, Cameron confirmed that there would be an extended theatrical re-release of the film on August 27 , 2010, exclusively in 3D theaters and IMAX 3D. [280] Avatar: Special Edition includes an additional nine minutes of footage, all of which is CG, [281] including an extension of the sex scene [282] and various other scenes that were cut from the original theatrical film. [281] This extended re-release resulted in the film's run time approaching the current IMAX platter maximum of 170 minutes, thereby leaving less time for the end credits. Cameron stated that the nine minutes of added scenes cost more than $1 million a minute to produce and finish. [5] During its 12-week re-release, Avatar: Special Edition grossed an additional $10.74 million in North America and $22.46 million overseas for a worldwide total of $33.2 million. [6]

Extended home media release

20th Century Fox Home Entertainment released the film on DVD and Blu-ray in the US on April 22 , 2010, [283] and in the UK on April 26 . [284] The US release was not on a Tuesday as is the norm, but was done to coincide with Earth Day. [285] The first DVD and Blu-ray release does not contain any supplemental features other than the theatrical film and the disc menu in favor of and to make space for optimal picture and sound. The release also preserves the film's native 1.78:1 (16:9) format as Cameron felt that was the best format to watch the film. [286] The Blu-ray disc contains DRM (BD+ 5) which some Blu-ray players might not support without a firmware update. [287] [288]

Avatar set a first-day launch record in the U.S. for Blu-ray sales at 1.5 million units sold, breaking the record previously held by The Dark Knight (600,000 units sold). First-day DVD and Blu-ray sales combined were over four million units sold. [289] In its first four days of release, sales of Avatar on Blu-ray reached 2.7 million in the United States and Canada – overtaking The Dark Knight to become the best ever selling Blu-ray release in the region. [290] [291] The release later broke the Blu-ray sales record in the UK the following week. [292] In its first three weeks of release, the film sold a total of 19.7 million DVD and Blu-ray discs combined, a new record for sales in that period. [293] As of July 18 , 2012, DVD sales (not including Blu-ray) totaled over 10.5 million units sold with $190,806,055 in revenue. [294] Avatar retained its record as the top-selling Blu-ray in the US market until January 2015, when it was surpassed by Disney's Frozen. [295]

Cameron initially stated that Avatar would be released in 3D around November 2010 , but the studio issued a correction: "3-D is in the conceptual stage and Avatar will not be out on 3D Blu-ray in November." [298] In May 2010 , Fox stated that the 3D version would be released some time in 2011. [293] It was later revealed that Fox had given Panasonic an exclusive license for the 3D Blu-ray version and only with the purchase of a Panasonic 3DTV. The length of Panasonic's exclusivity period is stated to last until February 2012 . [299] On October 2010 , Cameron stated that the standalone 3D Blu-ray would be the final version of the film's home release and that it was, "maybe one, two years out". [300] On Christmas Eve 2010, Avatar had its 3D television world premiere on Sky. [301] [302] [303]

On August 13, 2012, Cameron announced on Facebook that Avatar would be released globally on Blu-ray 3D. [304] The Blu-ray 3D version was finally released on October 16, 2012. [305]

Two sequels to Avatar were initially confirmed after the success of the first film this number was subsequently expanded to four. [306] [307] Their respective release dates were previously December 17, 2021, December 22, 2023, December 19, 2025, and December 17, 2027 [34] but due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the four Avatar sequels releases have been delayed their respective release dates are currently December 16, 2022, December 20, 2024, December 18, 2026, and December 22, 2028. [308] Cameron is directing, producing and co-writing all four Josh Friedman, Rick Jaffa, Amanda Silver, and Shane Salerno all took a part in the writing process of all of the sequels before being assigned to finish the separate scripts, making the eventual writing credits for each film unclear. [309] [310] [311] [312]

Filming for the first two sequels began in September 2017. [313] [314] Sam Worthington, Zoe Saldana, Giovanni Ribisi, Joel David Moore, Dileep Rao, and CCH Pounder are all reprising their roles, as are Stephen Lang and Matt Gerald, despite the deaths of their characters in the first film. [315] [316] [317] [318] Sigourney Weaver is also returning, although she stated that she would play a different character. [319]

New cast members include Cliff Curtis and Kate Winslet as members of the Na'vi reef people of Metkayina and Oona Chaplin as Varang, a "strong and vibrant central character who spans the entire saga of the sequels". [320] [321] [322] Seven child actors will also portray pivotal new characters through the sequels: Jamie Flatters, Britain Dalton, and Trinity Bliss as Jake and Neytiri's children, Bailey Bass, Filip Geljo, and Duane Evans Jr. as free-divers of the Metkayina, and Jack Champion as a human. [323] [324] Although the last two sequels have been greenlit, Cameron stated in an interview on November 26, 2017, "Let's face it, if Avatar 2 and 3 don't make enough money, there's not going to be a 4 and 5". [322]

On November 14, 2018, Cameron announced filming on Avatar 2 and 3 with the principal performance capture cast had been completed. [325] In September 2020, Cameron confirmed that live action filming had been completed for 2 and was over 90% complete for 3. [326]

Stage adaptation

Toruk – The First Flight is an original stage production by the Montreal-based Cirque du Soleil which ran between December 2015 and June 2019. Inspired by Avatar, the story is set in Pandora's past, involving a prophecy concerning a threat to the Tree of Souls and a quest for totems from different tribes. Audience members could download an app in order to participate in show effects. On January 18, 2016, it was announced via the Toruk Facebook page that filming for a DVD release had been completed and was undergoing editing. [327]

Theme park attraction

In 2011, Cameron, Lightstorm, and Fox entered an exclusive licensing agreement with the Walt Disney Company to feature Avatar-themed attractions at Walt Disney Parks and Resorts worldwide, including a themed land for Disney's Animal Kingdom in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. The area, known as Pandora – The World of Avatar, opened on May 27, 2017. [328] [329]


Following the release of Avatar, Cameron initially planned to write a novel based on the film, "telling the story of the movie, but [going] into much more depth about all the stories that we didn't have time to deal with." [330]

In 2013, this plan was superseded by the announcement of four new novels set within the "Avatar expanded universe", to be written by Steven Gould. [331] The books were due to be published by Penguin Random House, although since 2017, there has been no update on the planned book series. [332]

Cirque du Soleil to perform their production based around AVATAR

Inspired by James Cameron’s record-breaking movie AVATAR, Cirque du Soleil’s uniquely different touring show TORUK – The First Flight will make its UK debut next June at the Manchester Arena from 20-23, 2019 and London’s O2 Arena from 26-30 June 2019.

With creative input from James Cameron and experts from the movie’s production, TORUK – The First Flight is unlike any other Cirque du Soleil experience. With the brilliance of the Cirque du Soleil performers whose athleticism and acrobatics bring to life the Na’vi, the show is a visual effects’ spectacular where the world of Pandora is depicted through impressive multimedia projections, massive set-pieces and the largest collection of puppetry in Cirque du Soleil history creating a narrative-driven official prequel to AVATAR.

AVATAR is really meant to be a celebration of human motion and human emotion and Cirque is able to capture that absolutely perfectly, because it’s all about human performance and physicality. It makes you feel alive to watch these performers,” said James Cameron.

Cirque du Soleil TORUK Official Promo roll

The show
Inspired by James Cameron’s AVATAR, TORUK – The First Flight transports you to the world of Pandora in a visually stunning live setting. Experience a storytelling odyssey through a new world of imagination, discovery, and possibility.

Through a riveting fusion of cutting-edge visuals, puppetry and stagecraft buoyed by a soaring cinematic score, Cirque du Soleil applies its unique signature style to James Cameron’s imaginary world and “makes the bond” between two kindred artistic visions that capture the imagination. From the Floating Mountains and the Omatikaya Hometree, to the Anurai’s animal sanctuary and the lush jungles where the Tawkami live, video projections immerse the audience in the breathtaking world of Pandora.

This live immersive experience also bears the distinct signature of directors and multimedia innovators Michel Lemieux and Victor Pilon. It is a living ode to the Na’vi’s symbiotic coexistence with nature and their belief in the basic interconnectedness of all living things.

Narrated by a “Na’vi Storyteller” and populated by unforgettable characters, TORUK – The First Flight is a mythical tale set thousands of years before the events depicted in the film AVATAR, and before any humans ever set foot on Pandora.

The story
When a natural catastrophe threatens to destroy the sacred Tree of Souls, Ralu and Entu, two Omatikaya boys on the brink of adulthood, fearlessly decide to take matters into their own hands. Upon learning that Toruk can help them save the Tree of Souls, they set out, together with their newfound friend Tsyal, on a quest high up in the Floating Mountains to find the mighty red and orange predator that rules the Pandoran sky. Prophecy is fulfilled when a pure soul rises among the clans to ride Toruk for the first time and save the Na’vi from a terrible fate.

Creative Team
TORUK – The First Flight comprises 13 creators under the artistic guidance of Guy Laliberté (Guide) and Jean-François Bouchard (Creative Guide) for Cirque du Soleil, and James Cameron, Jon Landau, Kathy Franklin and Richie Baneham for Lightstorm Entertainment:

Michel Lemieux and Victor Pilon Show Writers and Directors, Multimedia Directors
Neilson Vignola Director of Creation
Carl Fillion Set and Props Designer
Kym Barrett Costume and Makeup Designer
Tuan Le and Tan Loc Choreographers
Bob & Bill Composers and Musical Directors
Jacques Boucher Sound Designer
Alain Lortie Lighting Designer
Patrick Martel Puppet Designer
Germain Guillemot Acrobatic Performance Designer
Pierre Masse Rigging and Acrobatic Equipment Designer

Ticket information
TORUK – The First Flight will be presented at Manchester Arena, 20-23 June 2019 and London’s O2 Arena 26-30 June 2019.

Tickets for those performances will be on pre-sale for Cirque Club members beginning today at 3pm.
Public on-sale will start Friday 16 November at 9am. Tickets can be purchased at

We’re in the Na’vi Now: “Avatar” sung blue (Review)

By Ray Pride

Novelist Barry Hannah says it well: “I really want stories that are rippers in the old sense. Tales of high danger, high adventure, and high exploration.”

And has that been what James Cameron’s been conjuring in his fevered imagination for as long as twenty years, a true ripper? Of all the things that can and will be said about “Avatar,” is that it’s the one 2009 feature drawing from the War in Iraq that could make a mint. While his ex-wife Kathryn Bigelow’s “Hurt Locker” is the best American movie about war in movies this year, and is racking up year-end critics’ nods, it didn’t blow up at the box office.

Even if James Cameron had spent $200 million-plus on a trainwreck the equal of the Icelandic economy, that would have been gratifying, even at the cost of encouraging the wisenheimers who, without seeing the film, invoked the Smurfs, “Ferngully: the Last Rainforest” and something called “Delgo.” All the pessimistic early jabber made it seem like this would be the in-flight movie that you would see on the way to become part of the Matrix. Of course, virtually no one had seen the movie until its Thursday night premiere in London and its staggered press screenings in the U.K. and North America. Then the lights went down, time passed entertainingly, the lights came up, the Twittering began, and within hours an embargo against reviews before opening day was lifted.

It’s a blast. Alfred Newman’s monumental Twentieth Century Fox fanfare is always good for a small chill, but Cameron’s 3-D effects are there from the first frame, and the trademark symbol for the searchlight logo loiters in front of your eyes, a ® you could cup your hand around.

It’s 2145. Jake Sully (Sam Worthington) is a former marine who’s lost the use of his legs. His twin brother had trained to travel light years away to a moon called Pandora, where a Blackwater-like mercenary group is clearcutting the planet. The Pandora box that the otherworld warriors open on the distant moon is natural reserves, or “Unobtainium,” an energy-bearing mineral that could save Earth. Brother dies, Jake’s swapped in: DNA’s close enough. Cameron dramatizes the idea of the “Avatar” well enough, even if it’s hard to explain, even in the press kit: “human “drivers” have their consciousness linked to a remotely controlled biological body that can survive in the lethal air. These avatars are genetically engineered hybrids of human DNA mixed with DNA from the natives of Pandora, the Na’vi.” Here’s one of Cameron’s bold strokes: he can intercut between the computer-generated event-foot feline blue-skinned Na’vi and the “real” worldly, just as he did with the twinned narratives of “Titanic.” And, Jake’s bulling into the “avatar” role without training is like any gamer who sits down to a new simulation, confident they can bluff their way through it.

Cameron’s built the world and the war machines from the ground up: almost everything’s been created in the computer. Maybe even some of the dialogue, like Quaritch, Stephen Lang’s gruff, sculpted Marine commander, admiring Jake’s C.V.: “Venezuela, that was some hard bush. Three tours of Nigeria!” The tympani at the back of tympanic membrane sounds… oil… oil… oil. If you don’t know about those countries’ energy reserves, the information passes as Lang’s bluster it also announces the political text of Cameron’s interspecies romance-Iraq/Afghanistan wars-American vs. Indian wars-anti-colonialism epic. Cameron goes so far as to allow the phrase “shock and awe” into the dialogue, long minutes after fireballs have done their duty. The metaphors and insinuations clash, but part of the extended battle scenes at the end of the film suggest it’s the mercenaries who are taking down the Pandora equivalent of the World Trade Center a forest with a trudging figure filled with fluttering ash and soot only cements the allusion. If someone’s taking your resources, killing your children, “Avatar” seems to ask, is Jihad all right then? It’s a romance and a pamphlet!

Technically, the results of Cameron’s visual imaginings are stunning. He’s a visionary of the technical realm. The fauna of Pandora suggest another element present in the visual design, but not in the plot: crushed, dried, infused, powdered, inhaled, smoked, all this lively plant life would likely bear major hallucinogenic oomph. How often do you feel the pull to put production design in your mouth? (If Oskar Fischinger had been a horticulturalist and not an animator, he’d breathe them in deeply, too.) Cameron’s editing is dynamic, his camera movements fluent. He’s a born filmmaker.

There’s never been enough money in filmmaking to host more than a handful of grandiloquent visions, and there is even less today. There are many, many more dreamers than there are $80 million-plus budgets. And far, far fewer visionary financiers. James Cameron proves again to be one of the safest bets when you’re betting the house, the kids, the grandparents’ house and the future of both your company and your industry. “Avatar” isn’t the harbinger of anything: it’s too costly and requires a perfectionist of Cameron’s manic stripe. Will this thin-sliced cross-section of Cameron’s brain collect enough “oohs” and “ahhs” to make its vast investment back? High adventure: high risk. It’ll be an interesting Saturday morning at Fox base camp on Pico Boulevard.

“Avatar” opens Friday in 35mm, digital “Real 3-D” and IMAX 3-D. Reviewed in “Real 3-D.”

Ray Pride is Newcity’s film critic and a contributing editor to Filmmaker magazine.

His history of Chicago “Ghost Signs” in words and images will be published in Spring 2022.

WOW - World of WearableArt

New Zealand’s largest art show, World of WearableArt™ will make its North American premiere at EMP Museum in Seattle, WA on July 2, 2016. A spectacular fusion of fashion and art, the exhibition showcases 32 award-winning garments from the international World of WearableArt™design competition and awards show staged every year in Wellington, New Zealand. The exhibit will be on display at EMP through January 2, 2017.

Now in its 28 th year, World of WearableArt™ has attracted hundreds of entries worldwide including fashion designers, artists, sculptors, architects, blacksmiths, illustrators, costume-makers, and other artisans charged with the mission to take “art off the wall and adorn onto the human form.” The contest rules allow an array of entries, welcoming anything that is in any way wearable, as long as it is original, beautifully designed, and well-made.

“EMP is thrilled to be the first venue in North America to host this stunning exhibition,” says Jasen Emmons, Director, Curatorial Affairs. “The bold ideas represented in these incredible works of art are fearless, beautiful, and engage the imagination in a powerful way.”


  • “Gothic Habit” worn shoulder to knee, a three-dimensional replica of a Gothic cathedral, by American designer Lynn Christiansen
  • “Persephone’s Descent,” a suit of armor made by Stuart Johnson, a New Zealand blacksmith and weapons maker for the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy
  • “Born to Die,” a dress made completely of cable ties woven into a sculptural “vertebrae” to look like a fish skeleton, by design student, Guo Xia Tong from China
  • “Lady of the Wood,” a replica of a 17 th -century ball gown made entirely of mahogany, lacewood, maple, and cedar, by Alaskan carpenter David Walker
  • “Ornitho-Maia,” a complex and ornately carved and embossed leather gown inspired by the ethereal protector of birds designed by Nadine Jäggi, New Zealand costume designer for films including Avatar, The Hobbit, and Prince Caspian
  • A special display of “bizarre” bras made of unconventional materials including kitchen utensils, a taxidermied hedgehog and “aBRAcaplyse Now” which heralds the Mayan end of days and the civilization’s ancestral iguana God

Founding Director Dame Suzie Moncrieff who heads the creative team and curated the exhibition is very excited to see the exhibition travel abroad. “The World of WearableArt™ is the largest, most prestigious wearable art event in the world and New Zealand’s largest single annual theatrical event. The competition is a magnet for creative talent, attracting entries from over 23 countries and resulting in an historic collection of more than 600 garments at our New Zealand base. We are delighted to have the opportunity to show a selection of these astonishing designs to an American audience. Our entrants range from designers who display their work at London Fashion Week to industrial designers with backgrounds such as boat building to non-professional designers with a passion for the craft of making. We look forward to inspiring future designers who come to view these works of wearable art.”

The exhibition features three distinct sections: a display of 32 garments from the permanent World of WearableArt™ collection including winners from the past 12 years a workroom for visitors to design their own piece of wearable art and an audio visual presentation of the annual World of WearableArt™ Awards Show.

The exhibition has been developed in partnership with the New Zealand Government and is expected to remain on tour in the United States through 2018.

GES, along with Lightstorm Entertainment, and Twentieth Century Fox Consumer Products today announced plans for AVATAR: Discover Pandora, an immersive, state-of-the-art exhibition that will make its global premiere in Taipei, Taiwan, on December 7. In the gallery viewer at the bottom of this page, you can take a look at concept art for AVATAR: Discover Pandora as well as glimpse the exhibition&rsquos official poster design.

AVATAR: Discover Pandora is inspired by and filled with the extraordinary creatures, environments and cultures of the James Cameron film. GES, a global events provider, is partnering with Beast Kingdom Co., Ltd., to bring AVATAR: Discover Pandora to Shin Kong Mitsukoshi Xinyi Place A11 6F Xinyi Theater in Taipei City, Taiwan for a three-month showcase.

In the new 12,000-square-foot entertainment and educational experience, visitors of all ages will be able to explore the scientific and wondrous discoveries found on the world of Pandora. Presenting Pandora as a real place, AVATAR: Discover Pandora will give visitors the opportunity to interact with the exhibition through a series of exciting and engaging immersive environments that highlight Pandora&rsquos diverse flora and fauna, exotic wildlife, and the amazing culture and mythology of its indigenous people, the Na&rsquovi.

AVATAR: Discover Pandora will then tour additional global markets after its premiere stop in Taiwan. Additional details will be released in the coming months.

GES&rsquos creative team has been working closely with Lightstorm and Fox to create an exhibition as authentic as possible to James Cameron&rsquos 2009 film. The scope for AVATAR: Discover Pandora aims to capture the beauty of the alien world and bring it back to Earth for a look at the many ways Pandora reflects our own planet.

&ldquoGES is absolutely thrilled to give Taiwanese fans of AVATAR the world&rsquos first opportunity to explore Pandora in a real-life setting through our newest touring exhibition,&rdquo says Steve Moster, President and Chief Operating Officer, Viad Corp. &ldquoVisitors will truly be amazed by the wonders of Pandora, and we are proud to premiere this state-of-the-art exhibit in the Asia-Pacific market.&rdquo

&ldquoOur fans around the world often tell us that they wish they could travel to Pandora,&rdquo adds Kathy Franklin, President, Franchise Development, Lightstorm Entertainment, &ldquoA nd this touring exhibition gives us a unique opportunity to bring the wonders of Pandora to them. This exhibition has something for everyone, from fans of the film who want to experience Pandora in a brand-new way as they await our four theatrical film sequels, to families looking for an exciting activity, or to school groups wanting to explore science through an inspiring lens.&rdquo

Featuring settings such as the Hallelujah Mountains and Tree of Souls, as well as life-sized recreations of creatures including the Banshee, Direhorse, and Viperwolf AVATAR: Discover Pandora will allow visitors to experience the science and wonder of Pandora firsthand. Official exhibition highlights are listed as follows:

· Enter an exhibition curated by the Pandoran Research Foundation where they will leave the 21st century behind and step into a 22nd century world of the AVATAR franchise
· Learn about space travel and the history behind the discovery of Pandora in the Alpha Centauri solar system
· Explore recreations of Pandora&rsquos most compelling environments showcasing its unique plants and animals and what they can teach us about our own planet
· Engage in interactive activities based on the culture, language and music of the Na&rsquovi, the nine-foot-plus-tall humanoids who are the indigenous people of Pandora
· Experience the jewel-like glow of Pandora&rsquos bioluminescent plants and animals
· Interact with banshees, learn to operate an AMP suit, picture yourself as part of the Avatar Program
· And more!

Would you like to see AVATAR: Discover Pandora visit your country? Let us know in the comments below!

Watch the video: AVATAR SUITE LIVE IN CONCERT - ORIGINAL VERSION HD!!! Hollywood in Vienna 2013 (July 2022).


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