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Warrington DD- 30 - History

Warrington DD- 30 - History

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(Destroyer No. 30: dp. 742 (n.), 1. 293'10", b. 26'1 1/2"(wl.), dr. 9'5" (aft) (f.), s. 30 k. (tl.), cpl. 89 a. 5 3", 6 18" tt., 3 .30-car. mg.; cl. Roe)

The first Warrington (Destroyer No. 30) was laid down on 21 June 1909 at Philadelphia by the William Cramp & Sons Ship & Engine Building Co., launched on 18 June 1910, sponsored by Mrs. Richard Hatton and commissioned on 20 March 1911, Lt. Walter M. Hunt in command.

After fitting out at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, Warrington moved on 5 August to the Torpedo Station at Newport, R.I., where she loaded torpedoes in preparation for training with the Atlantic Torpedo Fleet. During most of the fall and early winter, the warship conducted battle drills and practice torpedo firings with the submarines and destroyers of the torpedo fleet. She also joined the cruisers and battleships of the Atlantic Fleet for training in broader combat maneuvers. Those training evolutions took her as far north as Cape Cod, Mass., and as far south as Cuba.

On 27 December 1911, the destroyer departed Charleston, S.C., in company with the ships of Destroyer Divisions 8 and 9, bound for Hampton Roads. At about 1240 the following morning, the two divisions of destroyers reached the vicinity of the Virginia capes. Suddenly, an unidentified schooner knifed her way through the darkness and mist, struck Warrington aft, and sliced off about 30 feet of her stern. The collision deprived her of all propulsion and forced her to anchor at sea some 17 miles off Cape Hatteras. Sterett (Destroyer No. 27) responded to her distress call first, but soon, Walke (Destroyer No. 34) and Perkins (Destroyer No. 26) joined the vigil. The three ships struggled through the morning and forenoon watches to pass a towline to their stricken sister, but it was not until the revenue cutter Conondaga arrived at 1300 that the latter ship succeeded in taking Warrington in tow. The revenue cutter towed her into the Norfolk Navy Yard where she was placed in reserve while undergoing repairs which were not completed until 2 December 1912.

Upon her return to active service, Warrington resumed operations with the torpedo forces assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, by then designated the Atlantic Torpedo Flotilla. For a little over four years, she plied the eastern coastal waters of the United States, participating in various gunnery drills and torpedo-firing practices with the torpedo flotilla as well as in fleet maneuvers and battle problems with the assembled Atlantic Fleet. During part of that interlude, the destroyer was based at Newport and worked out of Boston during the remainder.

When the United States entered World War I on 6 April 1917, Warrington began patrols off Newport to protect the harbor from German submarines. After six weeks of such duty and preparations for service overseas, she stood out of Boston on 21 May, bound for Europe. After a stop at Newfoundland en route, she arrived at Queenstown, on the southern coast of Ireland, on 1 June. There, she began six months of service patrolling the southern approaches to British ports on the Irish Sea and escorting convoys on the final leg of their voyage across the Atlantic to the British Isles. The destroyer operated out of Queenstown until late November 1917 when she was ordered to France.

She reached Brest, her new base of operations, on 29 November and resumed a grueling schedule of patrols and escort missions. Records indicate that she experienced only one apparent brush with a U-boat. On the morning of 31 May 1918, while escorting a convoy along the French coast, she received a distress call from the Navy transport President Lincoln which, earlier that morning, had been torpedoed by U-90 well out to sea. The destroyer parted company with her coastal convoy immediately and raced to rescue the sinking ship's crew. She did not reach the area of the sinking until late that night but succeeded in rescuing 443 survivors just after 2300. Smith (Destroyer No. 17) took on all but one of the remaining 688 survivors of President Lincoln. That single exception, Lt. Isaacs, had the dubious honor of being rescued by U-90. On I June, during the voyage back to Brest, Warrington and Smith depthcharged the U-90. Lt. Isaacs, the captured naval officer who later escaped from a German prison camp, reported that the charges shook the submarine severely. However, no evidence of any success appeared on the surface; and the two destroyers, conscious of the importance of landing their human cargo, abandoned the attack and continued on to Brest. They entered that port the following day, disembarked the President Lincoln survivors, and resumed their patrol and escort missions.

Through the end of the war, Warrington operated out of Brest, patrolling against enemy submarines. However, the threat posed by the U-boats diminished considerably after the failure of Germany's last offensive in July and an Allied offensive had made their bases on the Belgian coast untenable. Late in October, Germany discontinued unrestricted submarine warfare and, early in November, sued for peace.

The armistice was concluded on 11 November 1918, but Warrington continued to serve in European waters until the spring of 1919. On 22 March, she stood out of Brest in the screen of a convoy of subchasers and tugs. After visiting the Azores and delivering her charges safely at Bermuda, the warship headed for Philadelphia. She reached the Delaware capes early in May and remained in the navy yard at League Island until decommissioned on 31 January 1920. Warrington lay at Philadelphia in reserve until 1935. On 20 March 1935 her name was struck from the Navy list. She was sold to M. Black & Co., Norfolk, VA., on 28 June 1935 for scrapping in accordance with the terms of the London Treaty for the Limitation and Reduction of Naval Armaments.

A Warning from History: The Carrington Event Was Not Unique

Sept. 1, 2020: On Sept. 1st, 1859, the most ferocious solar storm in recorded history engulfed our planet. It was “the Carrington Event,” named after British scientist Richard Carrington, who witnessed the flare that started it. The storm rocked Earth’s magnetic field, sparked auroras over Cuba, the Bahamas and Hawaii, set fire to telegraph stations, and wrote itself into history books as the Biggest. Solar. Storm. Ever.

But, sometimes, what you read in history books is wrong.

“The Carrington Event was not unique,” says Hisashi Hayakawa of Japan’s Nagoya University, whose recent study of solar storms has uncovered other events of comparable intensity. “While the Carrington Event has long been considered a once‐in‐a‐century catastrophe, historical observations warn us that this may be something that occurs much more frequently.”

Drawings of the Carrington sunspot by Richard Carrington on Sept. 1, 1859, and (inset) Heinrich Schwabe on Aug. 27, 1859. [Ref]

Many previous studies of solar superstorms leaned heavily on Western Hemisphere accounts, omitting data from the Eastern Hemisphere. This skewed perceptions of the Carrington Event, highlighting its importance while causing other superstorms to be overlooked.

A good example is the great storm of mid-September 1770, when extremely bright red auroras blanketed Japan and parts of China. Captain Cook himself saw the display from near Timor Island, south of Indonesia. Hayakawa and colleagues recently found drawings of the instigating sunspot, and it is twice the size of the Carrington sunspot group. Paintings, dairy entries, and other newfound records, especially from China, depict some of the lowest-latitude auroras ever, spread over a period of 9 days.

An eyewitness sketch of red auroras over Japan in mid-September 1770. [Ref]

Hayakawa’s team has delved into the history of other storms as well, examining Japanese diaries, Chinese and Korean government records, archives of the Russian Central Observatory, and log-books from ships at sea–all helping to form a more complete picture of events.

They found that superstorms in February 1872 and May 1921 were also comparable to the Carrington Event, with similar magnetic amplitudes and widespread auroras. Two more storms are nipping at Carrington’s heels: The Quebec Blackout of March 13, 1989, and an unnamed storm on Sept. 25, 1909, were only a factor of

2 less intense. (Check Table 1 of Hayakawa et al‘s 2019 paper for details.)

Oriental reports of a giant naked-eye sunspot group (left) and auroras (right) in Feb. 1872. [Ref]

Are we overdue for another Carrington Event? Maybe. In fact, we might have just missed one.

In July 2012, NASA and European spacecraft watched an extreme solar storm erupt from the sun and narrowly miss Earth. “If it had hit, we would still be picking up the pieces,” announced Daniel Baker of the University of Colorado at a NOAA Space Weather Workshop 2 years later. “It might have been stronger than the Carrington Event itself.”

History books, let the re-write begin.

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The history of the FT30, 1935-2011

The FT30 index is based on the share prices of 30 British companies from a wide range of industries. Launched in 1935, the FT30 is the oldest continuous index in the UK and one of the oldest in the world. This interactive graphic shows the companies that have comprised the index since its inception.

FT30 constituents change only when a company is taken over or fails. FT editors chose replacements from among the largest companies in each sector so that the index continues to reflect the breadth of the UK economy.

Reflecting long-term changes in the British economy, there has been a steady shift of emphasis in the FT30’s composition away from heavy industry and towards companies providing services.

Textile companies were well represented in the original index but disappeared as a result of the industry’s long-term decline. Coal mines departed under nationalisation. Oil shares gained representation in the index for the first time in1977, with the inclusion of British Petroleum, and in 1984 National Westminster Bank became the first entry from the financial sector. BT and British Gas were added after privatisation. Only two companies have remained in the index since its inception: – Tate & Lyle and engineering firm GKN..

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Warrington DD- 30 - History

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When a company such as DuPont splits its shares, the market capitalization before and after the split takes place remains stable, meaning the shareholder now owns more shares but each are valued at a lower price per share. Often, however, a lower priced stock on a per-share basis can attract a wider range of buyers. If that increased demand causes the share price to appreciate, then the total market capitalization rises post-split. This does not always happen, however, often depending on the underlying fundamentals of the business. When a company such as DuPont conducts a reverse share split, it is usually because shares have fallen to a lower per-share pricepoint than the company would like. This can be important because, for example, certain types of mutual funds might have a limit governing which stocks they may buy, based upon per-share price. The $5 and $10 pricepoints tend to be important in this regard. Stock exchanges also tend to look at per-share price, setting a lower limit for listing eligibility. So when a company does a reverse split, it is looking mathematically at the market capitalization before and after the reverse split takes place, and concluding that if the market capitilization remains stable, the reduced share count should result in a higher price per share.

Warrington, Lancashire

A parish meeting at Warrington in August 1712 agreed to erect a workhouse. The building was erected on Church Street in 1728 and accommodated around 100 inmates. In the second edition of An Account of Several Workhouses. , a report from Warrington, dated August 18th, 1729, noted that:

In 1776, the workhouse could accommodate 100 paupers. Eden, in his 1797 survey of the poor in England, reported of Warrington that:

The workhouse, located on Church Street, was a three-storey U-shaped building at the north end of a long, narrow site. The ground floor of the main building included an entrance hall, board room, kitchen, dining-hall, washhouse (laundry) and boys' school. A separate infirmary stood at the south of the site with gardens surrounding it. The Tavern pub now stands on the site.

Warrington Church Street workhouse site, 1849.

The rules of the house in 1820 included the barring of alcohol, no spitting or filth of any kind, no profane swearing, cursing or "obscene jests". There was also a ban on the "reading of songs, ballads, books or publications of an immoral tendency"

A workhouse was opened at Poulton with Fearnhead in around 1740 (Hitchcock, 1985).

A parliamentary report of 1777 recorded workhouses at Cuerdley (for up to 50 inmates ) and at Great Sankey (45).

Newton-le-Willows had a workhouse on Bridge Street.

Newton-le-Willows workhouse site, 1849.

After 1834

Warrington Poor Law Union was formed on 2nd February, 1837. Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians, 18 in number, representing its 15 constituent parishes or townships as listed below (figures in brackets indicate numbers of Guardians if more than one):

Lancashire: Burtonwood, Cuerdley, Golborne, Haydock Houghton, Middletown and Arbury Kenyon, Newton in Mackerfield, Penketh, Poulton with Fearnhead, Rixton with Glazebrook, Great Sankey, Southworth and Croft, Warrington (4), Woolstone with Martinscrofts, Winwick.
Later Addition : Little Sankey (from 1894).

The population falling within the union at the 1831 census had been 27,757 with parishes or townships ranging in size from Houghton, Middletown and Arbury (population 286) to Warrington itself (16,018).

Initially, the new Warrington Union took over existing township workhouses at Warrington and Newton-le-Willows.

Lovely Lane Workhouse

A new Warrington Union workhouse was built in 1849-51 at the east side of Lovely lane in Warrington, with its entrance from Guardian Street at the south of the site. The south-facing main building was a long two-storey block with three-storey central section and three-storey cross wings at each end. A dining hall and kitchens were located in the central rear wing with a separate chapel standing immediately to the north. Casual wards for vagrants were placed at the entrance to the site from Guardian Street.

Warrington workhouse site, 1905.

Warrington main block from the south-east, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Warrington main block from the south-west, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

Warrington chapel, dining-hall and rear of main block from the west, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

By 1893, there an isolation hospital for infectious had been constructed at the south-west of the workhouse. In around 1898 a large infirmary was built to the north of the workhouse site. It comprised a central administrative block flanked by separate male and female pavilions.

Warrington 1898 infirmary from the north, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

From 1904, to protect them from disadvantage in later life, the birth certificates for those born in the workhouse gave its address just as 99 Guardian Street, Warrington.

During the First World War, the site became home to Whitecross Military Hospital.

After 1930, the workhouse became Whitecross Institution and Hospital. With the inauguration of the National Health Service in 1948, the original workhouse buildings became Whitecross Homes and Hospital the 1898 infirmary became Warrington General Hospital and the isolation hospital became Aikin Street Hospital. In 1973, all the institutions on the site were united as Warrington District General Hospital.

Padgate Industrial Schools

In 1880-1, Warrington Union erected an Industrial School complex at Padgate. The site provided accommodation and training for pauper children away from the main workhouse site. The buildings included two boys' houses, two girls' houses, a school, Superintendent's house, and Porter's lodge. Play sheds were added in 1885. The site location and layout are shown on the 1905 map below.

Warrington Padgate schools site, 1905.

Padgate Superintendent's house (left) and Porter's lodge from the south, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

The children's accommodation comprised two T-shaped houses for each sex. The homes could eventually accommodate 200 children.

Padgate boys' houses from the south, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

The school, to the north-east of the Porter's lodge, has a foundation stone laid by WE Winstanley on 7th October 1880.

Padgate school block from the south, 2001.
© Peter Higginbotham.

The Industrial Schools later became Padgate Cottage Homes. The surviving buildings have now been converted for business use.


Note: many repositories impose a closure period of up to 100 years for records identifying individuals. Before travelling a long distance, always check that the records you want to consult will be available.

  • Lancashire Record Office, Bow Lane, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2RE. Few records survive &mdash main holdings are Guardians' minutes (1837-1900).
  • Forrest, D (2001) Warrington's Poor and the Workhouse, 1725-1851.
  • Hitchcock, T.V. (1985) The English workhouse: a study in institutional poor relief in selected counties. l695-l750. (DPhil thesis. University of Oxford.)

Unless otherwise indicated, this page () is copyright Peter Higginbotham. Contents may not be reproduced without permission.

U.S.S.R. attacks Finland

On November 30, 1939, the Red Army crosses the Soviet-Finnish border with 465,000 men and 1,000 aircraft. Helsinki was bombed, and 61 Finns were killed in an air raid that steeled the Finns for resistance, not capitulation.

The overwhelming forces arrayed against Finland convinced most Western nations, as well as the Soviets themselves, that the invasion of Finland would be a cakewalk. The Soviet soldiers even wore summer uniforms, despite the onset of the Scandinavian winter it was simply assumed that no outdoor activity, such as fighting, would be taking place. But the Helsinki raid had produced many casualties-and many photographs, including those of mothers holding dead babies, and preteen girls crippled by the bombing. Those photos were hung up everywhere to spur on Finn resistance. Although that resistance consisted of only small numbers of trained soldiers fighting it out in the forests, and partisans throwing Molotov cocktails into the turrets of Soviet tanks, the refusal to submit made headlines around the world.

President Roosevelt quickly extended $10 million in credit to Finland, while also noting that the Finns were the only people to pay back their World War I war debt to the United States in full. But by the time the Soviets had a chance to regroup, and send in massive reinforcements, the Finnish resistance was spent. By March 1940, negotiations with the Soviets began, and Finland soon lost the Karelian Isthmus, the land bridge that gave access to Leningrad, which the Soviets wanted to control.

1985: DSD-2 Digital Sampler/Delay

For the DSD-2, BOSS took the delay capabilities of the DD-2 and added a phrase sampler function to the mix, which was quite a novel idea at the time. While samplers had started to hit the scene a bit earlier, they were typically high-cost devices used mainly in studios. True to the BOSS philosophy, they brought this evolving technology within reach of all musicians with the DSD-2.

BOSS DSD-2 Digital Sampler/Delay.

The phrase sampler in the DSD-2 can record (or “sample”) 800 milliseconds of audio and play it back “one-shot” style with a press of the pedal switch. There’s also a Trigger input for triggering the sample from a drum pad or other external source. While the sampling capabilities were rather limited by today’s standards, the DSD-2—and later DSD-3—can be viewed as early descendants of BOSS’ immensely popular Loop Station products that would come many years later.

Hidden Histories, Untold Stories

Warrington Museum & Art Gallery presents a brand new exhibition by international award-winning artist, Susan Stockwell, exploring the hidden stories behind its eclectic and wide-ranging collections.


Following its reopening to the public on 08 July, Warrington Museum & Art Gallery presents a brand new exhibition by international award-winning artist, Susan Stockwell, exploring the hidden stories behind its eclectic and wide-ranging collections.

Titled ‘Hidden Histories, Untold Stories’, the new exhibition - which runs from 24 October to 31 January 2021 - highlights the museum’s role as a cultural collector and storyteller, and bring to life some of the untold stories behind its 200,000 objects.

The exhibition also explores themes around social change, consumerism and how museums across the world are reframing their collections to better reflect the communities, cultures and people they represent.

‘Hidden Histories, Untold Stories’ forms part of the Arts Council England-funded Meeting Point program, led by contemporary arts agency Arts&Heritage (www.artsandheritage.org.uk).

Artist, Susan Stockwell, said: “As one of the oldest museums in the country and a hidden gem, Warrington Museum & Art Gallery also has one of the most varied collections, covering everything from ethnology, archaeology, natural history and Warrington’s own social and industrial history.

“I was inspired to learn more about the stories behind its objects who originally made them, and what were they used for? I wanted to explore how the museum’s objects help us understand our history, and how the act of collecting and displaying things links to our modern obsession with consumerism and ownership.

“We’re also in a period of social change and questioning, and I wanted see how the museum’s collections could help us engage with current debates.”

Susan’s new exhibition at Warrington Museum & Art Gallery reflects her personal interests in politics, colonialism, social movements and the importance of telling people’s individual and untold stories.

‘Hidden Histories, Untold Stories’ features a series of shopping trollies from different eras in Britain’s history that link the museum’s collections to consumerism seeing the collection of objects as a form of shopping and the museum’s items as souvenirs of the time.

One will feature illuminated globes, highlighting the climate change crisis. Another will be full of cotton bobbins, marking the industrial revolution and the rise of the textile industry in the North West. It will also point to today’s fast fashion industry, which has been driven by globalisation. A third will symbolise collecting and how we gather items as consumers. A final trolley will be filled with sugar, referencing the UK’s trading history and the importance of products - such as sugar - in the creation of the past wealth.

Inspired by Warrington Museum & Art Gallery’s ethnology gallery, Susan will use childhood toys to tell the story of European settlers in North America, and the displacement of the country’s indigenous people. Other work in the museum’s ethnology gallery will include a series of small boats made from old paper currency, tickets and maps exploring the idea of connections in travel, trade, as well as personal and social histories.

In developing the exhibition, Susan was also inspired by Warrington’s own history, and in particular the role of women. Another piece of work will see a dress sculpture placed inside the museum’s Cabinet of Curiosities gallery to reference the absence of women’s stories throughout history, and social movements like the suffragettes and #MeToo movements.

Roger Jeffery, Producer at Culture Warrington, said: “I'm very excited to welcome an artist of Susan’s international standing to exhibit at Warrington Museum & Art Gallery. This is a very timely and important exhibition and I’m very much looking forward to the fresh perspective Susan will bring to our collections.”

‘Hidden Histories, Untold Stories’ is presented as part of Meeting Point, a national programme led by contemporary arts agency Arts&Heritage (www.artsandheritage.org.uk) that partners leading UK and international artists with museums and heritage sites to produce new artworks inspired by the museums and their collections.

Steph Allen, Executive Director at Arts&Heritage said: “Susan is well known for making beautifully crafted objects with an aesthetic, but behind each one is a more complex story.

“She’s not shied away from exploring how the collections at Warrington Museum & Art Gallery help us understand our history, and how they connect audiences with contemporary issues such as climate change, ecology and migration.”


DD Audio is celebrating 30 years of bass domination by taking you on a journey through the world renowned 9500 Series evolution.

From the beginning, DD has continually worked to improve our designs to keep up with the newest technology and the ever changing styles of music flowing through our veins. This comprehensive list documents each model’s highlights, changes, and improvements. With each new model we were able to push new limits, and thus, continually increase the performance and durability of the product. We’ve learned a lot over the years, and each lesson has helped pave the way to our newly released 9500 ESP subwoofers.

At the end of the day, we feel the customers are the true judges of our products, and if the 9500’s legacy has anything to say, it’s that we’re doing something right.

DD Audio is celebrating 30 years of bass domination by taking you on a journey through the world renowned 9500 Series evolution.

From the beginning, DD has continually worked to improve our designs to keep up with the newest technology and the ever changing styles of music flowing through our veins. This comprehensive list documents each model’s highlights, changes, and improvements. With each new model we were able to push new limits, and thus, continually increase the performance and durability of the product. We’ve learned a lot over the years, and each lesson has helped pave the way to our newly released 9500 ESP subwoofers.

At the end of the day, we feel the customers are the true judges of our products, and if the 9500’s legacy has anything to say, it’s that we’re doing something right.



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